• 1
    Brecher LS, Cymet TC. A practical approach to fibromyalgia. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2001; 101 ( 4 Suppl Pt 2): S127.
  • 2
    Kashikar-Zuck S, Graham TB, Huenefeld MD, Powers SW. A review of biobehavioral research in juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 38897.
  • 3
    Nampiaparampil DE, Shmerling RH. A review of fibromyalgia. Am J Manag Care 2004; 10: 794800.
  • 4
    Siegel DM, Janeway D, Baum J. Fibromyalgia syndrome in children and adolescents: clinical features at presentation and status at follow-up. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 37782.
  • 5
    Yunus MB, Masi AT. Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome: a clinical study of thirty-three patients and matched normal controls. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 13845.
  • 6
    Reid GJ, Lang BA, McGrath PJ. Primary juvenile fibromyalgia: psychological adjustment, family functioning, coping, and functional disability. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 75260.
  • 7
    Bernard AL, Prince A, Edsall P. Quality of life issues for fibromyalgia patients. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 4250.
  • 8
    Culos-Reed SN, Brawley LR. Fibromyalgia, physical activity, and daily functioning: the importance of efficacy and health-related quality of life. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 34351.
  • 9
    Valim V, Oliveira LM, Suda AL, Silva LE, Faro M, Neto TL, et al. Peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory anaerobic threshold in fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 3537.
  • 10
    Van Denderen JC, Boersma JW, Zeinstra P, Hollander AP, van Neerbos BR. Physiological effects of exhaustive physical exercise in primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS): is PFS a disorder of neuroendocrine reactivity? Scand J Rheumatol 1992; 21: 357.
  • 11
    Mannerkorpi K, Burckhardt CS, Bjelle A. Physical performance characteristics of women with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Care Res 1994; 7: 1239.
  • 12
    Valim V, Oliveira L, Suda A, Silva L, de Assis M, Barros Neto T, et al. Aerobic fitness effects in fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 10609.
  • 13
    Gowans SE, deHueck A. Effectiveness of exercise in management of fibromyalgia. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004; 16: 13842.
  • 14
    Kashikar-Zuck S, Vaught M, Goldschneider KR, Graham TB, Miller J. Depression, coping and functional disability in juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Pain 2002; 3: 4129.
  • 15
    Jones KD, Adams D, Winters-Stone K, Burckhardt CS. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988-2005). Health Qual Life Outcomes 2006; 4: 67.
  • 16
    Busch AJ, Barber KA, Overend TJ, Peloso PM, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD003786.
  • 17
    Gedalia A, Garcia CO, Molina JF, Bradford NJ, Espinoza LR. Fibromyalgia syndrome: experience in a pediatric rheumatology clinic. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000; 18: 4159.
  • 18
    Singh-Grewal D, Schneiderman-Walker J, Wright V, Bar-Or O, Beyene J, Selvadurai H, et al. The effects of vigorous exercise training on physical function in children with arthritis: a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 120210.
  • 19
    Buckhardt C, Goldenberg D, Crofford L, Gerwin R, Gowans S, Jackson K, et al. Guideline for the management of fibromyalgia syndrome pain in adults and children. Glenview (IL): American Pain Society; 2005. p. 109.
  • 20
    Anthony KK, Schanberg LE. Assessment and management of pain syndromes and arthritis pain in children and adolescents. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2007; 33: 62560.
  • 21
    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 16072.
  • 22
    Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Boer NF, Peoples JA, Foreman AJ, Dabayebeh IM, et al. Children's OMNI scale of perceived exertion: mixed gender and race validation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 4528.
  • 23
    Wu H, Wu WC, Breiter-Wu D. Tai Chi single fan: for health and martial arts. East Providence (RI): Way of the Dragon; 2000.
  • 24
    Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Horswill CA, Stillman RJ, Van Loan MD, et al. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol 1988; 60: 70923.
  • 25
    American Thoracic Society. Standardization of spirometry: 1994 update. Am J Respir Cnt Care Med. 1995; 152: 110736.
  • 26
    Bar-Or O. The Wingate anaerobic test: an update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sports Med 1987; 4: 38194.
  • 27
    Singh G, Athreya BH, Fries JF, Goldsmith DP. Measurement of health status in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 17619.
  • 28
    Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Szer IS. The PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in pediatric rheumatology: reliability and validity. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 2494500.
  • 29
    Burckhardt CS, Clark SR, Bennett RM. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire: development and validation. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 72833.
  • 30
    Crowley SL, Thompson B, Worchel F. The Children's Depression Inventory: a comparison of generalizability and classical test theory analyses. Educ Psychol Meas 1994; 54: 70513.
  • 31
    Kovacs M. Children's Depression Inventory. New York: Multi-Health Systems; 1992.
  • 32
    Hay J. Development and testing of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale. In: ArmstrongN, editor. Children and exercise XIX. 2nd ed. Exeter (WA): Singer Press; 1997.
  • 33
    Hay J, Cairney J. Development of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale for clinical research: a systematic approach. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2006; 18: 193202.
  • 34
    Hay JA, Atkinson S, Halton J. An examination of the reliability of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES). In: Pediatric Work Physiology Symposium, XVIII, Odense, Denmark. 1995.
  • 35
    Hay JA. Development and testing of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale. Pediatr Work Physiol 1997; 2: 1259.
  • 36
    Feldman B, Grundland B, McCullough L, Wright V. Distinction of quality of life, health related quality of life and health status in children referred for rheumatologic care. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 22633.
  • 37
    Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Limbers CA, Szer IS. The PedsQL as a patient-reported outcome in children and adolescents with fibromyalgia: an analysis of OMERACT domains. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2007; 5: 9.
  • 38
    Gragg RA, Rapoff MA, Danovsky MB, Lindsley CB, Varni JW, Waldron SA, et al. Assessing chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with rheumatic disease: further validation of the Pediatric Pain Questionnaire. J Pediatr Psychol 1996; 21: 23750.
  • 39
    Van Santen M, Bolwijn P, Landewe R, Verstappen F, Bakker C, Hidding A, et al. High or low intensity aerobic fitness training in fibromyalgia: does it matter? J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 5827.
  • 40
    Assis MR, Silva LE, Alves AM, Pessanha AP, Valim V, Feldman D, et al. A randomized controlled trial of deep water running: clinical effectiveness of aquatic exercise to treat fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 5765.
  • 41
    Gowans SE, deHueck A, Voss S, Silaj A, Abbey SE. Six-month and one-year followup of 23 weeks of aerobic exercise for individuals with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 8908.
  • 42
    Gowans SE, deHueck A, Voss S, Silaj A, Abbey SE, Reynolds WJ. Effect of a randomized, controlled trial of exercise on mood and physical function in individuals with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 51929.
  • 43
    McCain GA, Bell DA, Mai FM, Halliday PD. A controlled study of the effects of a supervised cardiovascular fitness training program on the manifestations of primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 113541.
  • 44
    Takken T, Van Der Net J, Kuis W, Helders PJ. Aquatic fitness training for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 140814.
  • 45
    Quittner AL, Modi AC, Lemanek KL, Ievers-Landis CE, Rapoff MA. Evidence-based assessment of adherence to medical treatments in pediatric psychology. J Pediatr Psychol 2007. E-pub ahead of print.