• 1
    Bruen B, Ghosh A. Medicaid prescription drug spending and use. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2004.
  • 2
    National Pharmaceutical Council. Pharmaceutical benefits under state medical assistance programs, 2005–2006. Reston (VA): National Pharmaceutical Council; 2006.
  • 3
    Mello MM, Studdert DM, Brennan TA. The pharmaceutical industry versus Medicaid: limits of state initiatives to control prescription-drug costs. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 60813.
  • 4
    Fischer MA, Cheng HC, Schneeweiss S, Avorn J, Solomon DH. Prior authorization policies for selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in Medicaid: a policy review. Med Care 2006; 44: 65863.
  • 5
    Fischer MA, Choudhry NK, Winkelmayer WC. Impact of Medicaid prior authorization on angiotensin receptor blockers: can policy promote rational prescribing? Health Aff (Millwood) 2007; 26: 8007.
  • 6
    Fischer MA, Schneeweiss S, Avorn J, Solomon DH. Medicaid prior-authorization programs and the use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 218794.
  • 7
    Fischer MA, Servi AD, Polinski JM, Wang PS. Restrictions for antidepressant medications in children: a review of Medicaid policy. Psychiatr Serv 2007; 58: 1358.
  • 8
    Polinski JM, Wang PS, Fischer MA. Early effects of an FDA advisory regarding antipsychotic medications on US Medicaid prior authorization programs. Health Aff (Millwood) 2007; 26: 75060.
  • 9
    Roughead EE, Zhang F, Ross-Degnan D, Soumerai S. Differential effect of early or late implementation of prior authorization policies on the use of Cox II inhibitors. Med Care 2006; 44: 37882.
  • 10
    Smalley WE, Griffin MR, Fought RL, Sullivan L, Ray WA. Effect of a prior-authorization requirement on the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by Medicaid patients. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 16127.
  • 11
    Tilly J, Elam L. Prior authorization for Medicaid prescription drugs in five states: lessons for policy makers. Washington, DC: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2003.
  • 12
  • 13
    Stata statistical software: release 9.0. College Station (TX): Stata Corporation; 2005.