SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Petri M, Perez-Gutthann S, Longenecker JC, Hochberg M. Morbidity of systemic lupus erythematosus: role of race and socioeconomic status. Am J Med 1991; 91: 34553.
  • 2
    Bastian HM, Roseman JM, McGwin G Jr, Alarcon GS, Friedman AW, Fessler BJ, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XII. Risk factors for lupus nephritis after diagnosis. Lupus 2002; 11: 15260.
  • 3
    Pons-Estel BA, Catoggio LJ, Cardiel MH, Soriano ER, Gentiletti S, Villa AR, et al. The GLADEL multinational Latin American prospective inception cohort of 1,214 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: ethnic and disease heterogeneity among “Hispanics.” Medicine (Baltimore) 2004; 83: 117.
  • 4
    Ward MM, Studenski S. Clinical prognostic factors in lupus nephritis: the importance of hypertension and smoking. Arch Intern Med 1992; 152: 20828.
  • 5
    Adler M, Chambers S, Edwards C, Neild G, Isenberg D. An assessment of renal failure in an SLE cohort with special reference to ethnicity, over a 25-year period. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45: 11447.
  • 6
    Williams W, Sargeant LA, Smikle M, Smith R, Edwards H, Shah D. The outcome of lupus nephritis in Jamaican patients. Am J Med Sci 2007; 334: 42630.
  • 7
    Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Font J, Sebastiani GD, Gil A, Lavilla P, et al, and the European Working Party on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus during a 10-year period: a comparison of early and late manifestations in a cohort of 1,000 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2003; 82: 299308.
  • 8
    Zonana-Nacach A, Yanez P, Jimenez-Balderas FJ, Camargo-Coronel A. Disease activity, damage and survival in Mexican patients with acute severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2007; 16: 9971000.
  • 9
    Clarke AE, Panopalis P, Petri M, Manzi S, Isenberg DA, Gordon C, et al. SLE patients with renal damage incur higher health care costs. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 32933.
  • 10
    Fessler BJ, Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Roseman J, Bastian HM, Friedman AW, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XVI. Association of hydroxychloroquine use with reduced risk of damage accrual. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 147380.
  • 11
    Ruiz-Irastorza G, Egurbide MV, Pijoan JI, Garmendia M, Villar I, Martinez-Berriotxoa A, et al. Effect of antimalarials on thrombosis and survival in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2006; 15: 57783.
  • 12
    Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Bertoli AM, Fessler BJ, Calvo-Alen J, Bastian HM, et al. Effect of hydroxychloroquine in the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from LUMINA, a multiethnic US cohort (LUMINA L). Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 116872.
  • 13
    The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group. A randomized study of the effect of withdrawing hydroxychloroquine sulfate in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1504.
  • 14
    Tsakonas E, Joseph L, Esdaile JM, Choquette D, Senecal JL, Cividino A, et al, and the Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group. A long-term study of hydroxychloroquine withdrawal on exacerbations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1998; 7: 805.
  • 15
    Kasitanon N, Fine DM, Haas M, Magder LS, Petri M. Hydroxychloroquine use predicts complete renal remission within 12 months among patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil therapy for membranous lupus nephritis. Lupus 2006; 15: 36670.
  • 16
    Siso A, Ramos-Casals M, Bove A, Brito-Zeron P, Soria N, Munoz S, et al. Previous antimalarial therapy in patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis: influence on outcomes and survival. Lupus 2008; 17: 2818.
  • 17
    Gladman D, Ginzler E, Goldsmith C, Fortin P, Liang M, Urowitz M, et al. The development and initial validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 3639.
  • 18
    Alarcon GS, Friedman AW, Straaton KV, Moulds JM, Lisse J, Bastian HM, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. III. A comparison of characteristics early in the natural history of the LUMINA cohort. LUpus in MInority populations: NAture vs. Nurture. Lupus 1999; 8: 197209.
  • 19
    Vila LM, Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Friedman AW, Baethge BA, Bastian HM, et al. Early clinical manifestations, disease activity and damage of systemic lupus erythematosus among two distinct US Hispanic subpopulations. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 35863.
  • 20
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 21
    Hochberg MC, for the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American College of Rheumatology. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
  • 22
    Vasiliades J. Reaction of alkaline sodium picrate with creatinine. I. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of the mono-creatinine picric acid complex. Clin Chem 1976; 22: 166471.
  • 23
    Fernandez M, Alarcon GS, Calvo-Alen J, Andrade R, McGwin G Jr, Vila LM, et al. A multiethnic, multicenter cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as a model for the study of ethnic disparities in SLE. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 57684.
  • 24
    Heinegard D, Tiderstrom G. Determination of serum creatinine by a direct colorimetric method. Clin Chim Acta 1973; 43: 30510.
  • 25
    Wallace DJ. Antimalarials: the ‘real’ advance in lupus. Lupus 2001; 10: 3857.
  • 26
    Petri M. Hydroxychloroquine use in the Baltimore Lupus Cohort: effects on lipids, glucose and thrombosis [review]. Lupus 1996; 1(5 Suppl ): S1622.
  • 27
    US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Current population reports: series P-23, no. 28 and series P-60, no. 68 and subsequent years. Washington, DC: Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division; 1995.
  • 28
    Liang MH, Socher SA, Larson MG, Schur PH. Reliability and validity of six systems for the clinical assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 110718.
  • 29
    Gladman DD, Goldsmith CH, Urowitz MB, Bacon P, Bombardier C, Isenberg D, et al. Sensitivity to change of 3 systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity indices: international validation. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 146871.
  • 30
    Aarden LA, de Groot ER, Feltkamp TE. Immunology of DNA. III. Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence technique. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1975; 254: 50515.
  • 31
    Harris EN. Special report: the second international anti-cardiolipin standardization workshop/the Kingston anti-phospholipid antibody study (KAPS) group. Am J Clin Pathol 1990; 94: 47684.
  • 32
    Pilowsky I. Dimensions of illness behavior as measured by the Illness Behavior Questionnaire: a replication study. J Psychosom Res 1993; 37: 5362.
  • 33
    Bastian HM, Alarcon GS, Roseman JM, McGwin G Jr, Vila LM, Fessler BJ. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic US cohort (LUMINA) XLII: factors predictive of new and worsening proteinuria. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46: 6839.
  • 34
    Danila MI, Pons-Estel GJ, Zhang J, Vila LM, Reveille JD, Alarcon GS. Renal damage is the most important predictor of mortality within the damage index: data from LUMINA LXIV, multiethnic US cohort. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2009. Epub ahead of print.
  • 35
    Bernatsky S, Boivin JF, Joseph L, Manzi S, Ginzler E, Gladman DD, et al. Mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 25507.
  • 36
    Wang F, Wang CL, Tan CT, Manivasagar M. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Malaysia: a study of 539 patients and comparison of prevalence and disease expression in different racial and gender groups. Lupus 1997; 6: 24853.
  • 37
    Petri M. Hopkins lupus cohort: 1999 update. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000; 26: 199213.
  • 38
    Rivest C, Lew RA, Welsing PM, Sangha O, Wright EA, Roberts WN, et al. Association between clinical factors, socioeconomic status, and organ damage in recent onset systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 6804.
  • 39
    Mok CC, Ho CT, Wong RW, Lau CS. Damage accrual in Southern Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 15139.
  • 40
    Austin HA III, Boumpas DT, Vaughan EM, Balow JE. Predicting renal outcomes in severe lupus nephritis: contributions of clinical and histologic data. Kidney Int 1994; 45: 54450.
  • 41
    Esdaile JM, Federgreen W, Quintal H, Suissa S, Hayslett JP, Kashgarian M. Predictors of one year outcome in lupus nephritis: the importance of renal biopsy. Q J Med 1991; 295: 90718.
  • 42
    Duran S, McGwin G Jr, Vila LM, Reveille JD, Alarcon GS. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors delay the occurrence of renal involvement and are associated with a decreased risk of disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Results from LUMINA: a multiethnic US cohort. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 10936.
  • 43
    Schmoor C, Caputo A, Schumacher M. Evidence from nonrandomized studies: a case study on the estimation of causal effects. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 11209.
  • 44
    Sturmer T, Joshi M, Glynn RJ, Avorn J, Rothman KJ, Schneeweiss S. A review of the application of propensity score methods yielded increasing use, advantages in specific settings, but not substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods. J Clin Epidemiol 2006; 59: 43747.
  • 45
    Lafyatis R, York M, Marshak-Rothstein A. Antimalarial agents: closing the gate on toll-like receptors? [editorial]. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 306870.
  • 46
    Smith KD. Lupus nephritis: toll the trigger! J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 32735.
  • 47
    Karres I, Kremer JP, Dietl I, Steckholzer U, Jochum M, Ertel W. Chloroquine inhibits proinflammatory cytokine release into human whole blood. Am J Physiol 1998; 274: R105864.
  • 48
    Baccala R, Hoebe K, Kono DH, Beutler B, Theofilopoulos AN. TLR-dependent and TLR-independent pathways of type I interferon induction in systemic autoimmunity. Nat Med 2007; 13: 54351.
  • 49
    Wallace DJ. Does hydroxychloroquine sulfate prevent clot formation in systemic lupus erythematosus? [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 14356.
  • 50
    Petri M. Thrombosis and systemic lupus erythematosus: the Hopkins Lupus Cohort perspective. Scand J Rheumatol 1996; 25: 1913.
  • 51
    Gerstein HC, Thorpe KE, Taylor DW, Haynes RB. The effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are refractory to sulfonylureas: a randomized trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002; 55: 20919.
  • 52
    Bevan AP, Krook A, Tikerpae J, Seabright PJ, Siddle K, Smith GD. Chloroquine extends the lifetime of the activated insulin receptor complex in endosomes. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 2683340.