• 1
    Ronnblom L, Eloranta ML, Alm GV. The type I interferon system in systemic lupus erythematosus [review]. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 40820.
  • 2
    Crow MK. Type I interferon in systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2007; 316: 35986.
  • 3
    Ronnblom L, Pascual V. The innate immune system in SLE: type I interferons and dendritic cells. Lupus 2008; 17: 3949.
  • 4
    Theofilopoulos AN, Baccala R, Beutler B, Kono DH. Type I interferons (α/β) in immunity and autoimmunity. Annu Rev Immunol 2005; 23: 30736.
  • 5
    Hueber W, Zeng D, Strober S, Utz PJ. Interferon-α–inducible proteins are novel autoantigens in murine lupus. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 323949.
  • 6
    Strandberg L, Ambrosi A, Espinosa A, Ottosson L, Eloranta ML, Zhou W, et al. Interferon-α induces up-regulation and nuclear translocation of the Ro52 autoantigen as detected by a panel of novel Ro52-specific monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Immunol 2008; 28: 22031.
  • 7
    Bengtsson A, Sturfelt G, Truedsson L, Blomberg J, Alm G, Vallin H, et al. Activation of type I interferon system in systemic lupus erythematosus correlates with disease activity but not antiretroviral antibodies. Lupus 2000; 9: 66471.
  • 8
    Baechler EC, Batliwalla FM, Karypis G, Gaffney PM, Ortmann WA, Espe KJ, et al. Interferon-inducible gene expression signature in peripheral blood cells of patients with severe lupus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 26105.
  • 9
    Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Goring HH, Lindroos K, Wiman AC, Sturfelt G, et al. Polymorphisms in the tyrosine kinase 2 and interferon regulatory factor 5 genes are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Hum Genet 2005; 76: 52837.
  • 10
    Remmers EF, Plenge RM, Lee AT, Graham RR, Hom G, Behrens TW, et al. STAT4 and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 97786.
  • 11
    Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Garnier S, Grundberg E, Kwan T, Nilsson O, et al. A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5. Hum Mol Genet 2008; 17: 286876.
  • 12
    Ronnblom LE, Alm GV, Oberg KE. Possible induction of systemic lupus erythematosus by interferon-α treatment in a patient with a malignant carcinoid tumour. J Intern Med 1990; 227: 20710.
  • 13
    Borg FA, Isenberg DA. Syndromes and complications of interferon therapy. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2007; 19: 616.
  • 14
    Wallace DJ, Petri P, Olsen N, Kirou K, Dennis G, Yao Y, et al. MEDI-545, an anti-interferon alpha monoclonal antibody, shows evidence of clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56 Suppl 9: S5267.
  • 15
    Bave U, Vallin H, Alm GV, Ronnblom L. Activation of natural interferon-α producing cells by apoptotic U937 cells combined with lupus IgG and its regulation by cytokines. J Autoimmun 2001; 17: 7180.
  • 16
    Bave U, Nordmark G, Lovgren T, Ronnelid J, Cajander S, Eloranta ML, et al. Activation of the type I interferon system in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a possible etiopathogenic mechanism. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 118595.
  • 17
    Lovgren T, Eloranta ML, Bave U, Alm GV, Ronnblom L. Induction of interferon-α production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells by immune complexes containing nucleic acid released by necrotic or late apoptotic cells and lupus IgG. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 186172.
  • 18
    Eloranta ML, Helmers SB, Ulfgren AK, Ronnblom L, Alm GV, Lundberg IE. A possible mechanism for endogenous activation of the type I interferon system in myositis patients with anti–Jo-1 or anti–Ro 52/anti–Ro 60 autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 311224.
  • 19
    Bave U, Magnusson M, Eloranta ML, Perers A, Alm GV, Ronnblom L. FcγRIIa is expressed on natural IFN-α producing cells (plasmacytoid dendritic cells) and is required for the IFN-α production induced by apoptotic cells combined with lupus IgG. J Immunol 2003; 171: 3296302.
  • 20
    Means TK, Latz E, Hayashi F, Murali MR, Golenbock DT, Luster AD. Human lupus autoantibody-DNA complexes activate DCs through cooperation of CD32 and TLR9. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 40717.
  • 21
    Vollmer J, Tluk S, Schmitz C, Hamm S, Jurk M, Forsbach A, et al. Immune stimulation mediated by autoantigen binding sites within small nuclear RNAs involves Toll-like receptors 7 and 8. J Exp Med 2005; 202: 157585.
  • 22
    Lovgren T, Eloranta ML, Kastner B, Wahren-Herlenius M, Alm GV, Ronnblom L. Induction of interferon-α by immune complexes or liposomes containing systemic lupus erythematosus autoantigen– and Sjögren's syndrome autoantigen–associated RNA. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 191727.
  • 23
    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P, Feng D. The role of type I interferon production by dendritic cells in host defense. Biochimie 2007; 89: 84355.
  • 24
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 25
    Bombardier C, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB, Caron D, Chang DH, and the Committee on Prognosis Studies in SLE. Derivation of the SLEDAI: a disease activity index for lupus patients. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 63040.
  • 26
    Bach M, Krol A, Luhrmann R. Structure-probing of U1 snRNPs gradually depleted of the U1-specific proteins A, C and 70k: evidence that A interacts differentially with developmentally regulated mouse U1 snRNA variants. Nucleic Acids Res 1990; 18: 44957.
  • 27
    Kastner B, Luhrmann R. Electron microscopy of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles: shape of the particle and position of the 5' RNA terminus. EMBO J 1989; 8: 27786.
  • 28
    Cederblad B, Blomberg S, Vallin H, Perers A, Alm GV, Ronnblom L. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have reduced numbers of circulating natural interferon-α-producing cells. J Autoimmun 1998; 11: 46570.
  • 29
    Mathsson L, Tejde A, Carlson K, Hoglund M, Nilsson B, Nilsson-Ekdahl K, et al. Cryoglobulin-induced cytokine production via FcγRIIa: inverse effects of complement blockade on the production of TNF-α and IL-10. Implications for the growth of malignant B-cell clones. Br J Haematol 2005; 129: 8308.
  • 30
    Della Chiesa M, Romagnani C, Thiel A, Moretta L, Moretta A. Multidirectional interactions are bridging human NK cells with plasmacytoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during innate immune responses. Blood 2006; 108: 38518.
  • 31
    Gerosa F, Gobbi A, Zorzi P, Burg S, Briere F, Carra G, et al. The reciprocal interaction of NK cells with plasmacytoid or myeloid dendritic cells profoundly affects innate resistance functions. J Immunol 2005; 174: 72734.
  • 32
    Ferlazzo G, Pack M, Thomas D, Paludan C, Schmid D, Strowig T, et al. Distinct roles of IL-12 and IL-15 in human natural killer cell activation by dendritic cells from secondary lymphoid organs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101: 1660611.
  • 33
    Radstake TR, van Lent PL, Pesman GJ, Blom AB, Sweep FG, Ronnelid J, et al. High production of proinflammatory and Th1 cytokines by dendritic cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and down regulation upon FcγR triggering. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 696702.
  • 34
    Mullazehi M, Mathsson L, Lampa J, Ronnelid J. Surface-bound anti–type II collagen–containing immune complexes induce production of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8 from peripheral blood monocytes via Fcγ receptor IIa: a potential pathophysiologic mechanism for humoral anti–type II collagen immunity in arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 175971.
  • 35
    Kazama H, Ricci JE, Herndon JM, Hoppe G, Green DR, Ferguson TA. Induction of immunological tolerance by apoptotic cells requires caspase-dependent oxidation of high-mobility group box-1 protein. Immunity 2008; 29: 2132.
  • 36
    Ronnelid J, Tejde A, Mathsson L, Nilsson-Ekdahl K, Nilsson B. Immune complexes from SLE sera induce IL10 production from normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells by an FcγRII dependent mechanism: implications for a possible vicious cycle maintaining B cell hyperactivity in SLE. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 3742.
  • 37
    Malygin AM, Meri S, Timonen T. Regulation of natural killer cell activity by transforming growth factor-β and prostaglandin E2. Scand J Immunol 1993; 37: 716.
  • 38
    Joshi PC, Zhou X, Cuchens M, Jones Q. Prostaglandin E2 suppressed IL-15-mediated human NK cell function through down-regulation of common γ-chain. J Immunol 2001; 166: 88591.
  • 39
    Tu Z, Bozorgzadeh A, Pierce RH, Kurtis J, Crispe N, Orloff MS. TLR-dependent cross talk between human Kupffer cells and NK cells. J Exp Med 2008; 205: 23344.
  • 40
    Romero-Reyes M, Head C, Cacalano NA, Jewett A. Potent induction of TNF-α during interaction of immune effectors with oral tumors as a potential mechanism for the loss of NK cell viability and function. Apoptosis 2007; 12: 206375.
  • 41
    Betten A, Dahlgren C, Hermodsson S, Hellstrand K. Serotonin protects NK cells against oxidatively induced functional inhibition and apoptosis. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 70: 6572.
  • 42
    Betten A, Dahlgren C, Mellqvist UH, Hermodsson S, Hellstrand K. Oxygen radical induced natural killer cell dysfunction: role of myeloperoxidase and regulation by serotonin. J Leukoc Biol 2004; 75: 11115.
  • 43
    Oates JC, Farrelly LW, Hofbauer AF, Wang W, Gilkeson GS. Association of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediate and complement levels with apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in lupus patients. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 373847.
  • 44
    Bave U, Alm GV, Ronnblom L. The combination of apoptotic U937 cells and lupus IgG is a potent IFN-α inducer. J Immunol 2000; 165: 351926.
  • 45
    Son Y, Ito T, Ozaki Y, Tanijiri T, Yokoi T, Nakamura K, et al. Prostaglandin E2 is a negative regulator on human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunology 2006; 119: 3642.
  • 46
    Willeke P, Schluter B, Schotte H, Erren M, Mickholz E, Domschke W, et al. Increased frequency of GM-CSF secreting PBMC in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus can be reduced by immunoadsorption. Lupus 2004; 13: 25762.