• 1
    Lane NE. Clinical practice: osteoarthritis of the hip. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 141321.
  • 2
    Felson DT. Clinical practice: osteoarthritis of the knee. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 8418.
  • 3
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Total Hip Replacement. NIH consensus conference: total hip replacement. JAMA 1995; 273: 19506.
  • 4
    Merx H, Dreinhofer K, Schrader P, Sturmer T, Puhl W, Gunther KP, et al. International variation in hip replacement rates. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 2226.
  • 5
    Heine J. Uber die arthritis deformans. Virchows Archiv 1926; 260: 52163.
  • 6
    Van Saase JL, van Romunde LK, Cats A, Vandenbroucke JP, Valkenburg HA. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: Zoetermeer survey. Comparison of radiological osteoarthritis in a Dutch population with that in 10 other populations. Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48: 27180.
  • 7
    Felson D. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. In: BrandtKD, DohertyM, LohmanderLS, editors. Osteoarthritis. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 1322.
  • 8
    Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini EH, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 77899.
  • 9
    Nevitt MC, Xu L, Zhang Y, Lui LY, Yu W, Lane NE, et al. Very low prevalence of hip osteoarthritis among Chinese elderly in Beijing, China, compared with whites in the United States: the Beijing osteoarthritis study. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 17739.
  • 10
    DiCesare PE, Abramson SB. Pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. In: HarrisEDJr, KelleyWN, editors. Kelley's textbook of rheumatology. 7th ed. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 1493513.
  • 11
    Nevitt MC. Risk factors for knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis. In: ArdenN, CooperC, editors. Osteoarthritis handbook. London: Taylor & Francis; 2006. p. 2345.
  • 12
    Felson DT, Lawrence RC, Dieppe PA, Hirsch R, Helmick CG, Jordan JM, et al. Osteoarthritis: new insights. Part 1: the disease and its risk factors. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 63546.
  • 13
    Lievense AM, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Verhagen AP, Bernsen RM, Verhaar JA, Koes BW. Influence of sporting activities on the development of osteoarthritis of the hip: a systematic review [review]. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 49: 22836.
  • 14
    Spector TD, MacGregor AJ. Risk factors for osteoarthritis: genetics. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004; 12 Suppl A: S3944.
  • 15
    Dougados M, Gueguen A, Nguyen M, Berdah L, Lequesne M, Mazieres B, et al. Radiological progression of hip osteoarthritis: definition, risk factors and correlations with clinical status. Ann Rheum Dis 1996; 55: 35662.
  • 16
    Hawker GA, Guan J, Croxford R, Coyte PC, Glazier RH, Harvey BJ, et al. A prospective population-based study of the predictors of undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 321220.
  • 17
    Felson DT, Goggins J, Niu J, Zhang Y, Hunter DJ. The effect of body weight on progression of knee osteoarthritis is dependent on alignment. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 39049.
  • 18
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A, Walker AM, Meenan RF. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109: 1824.
  • 19
    Kiechl S, Lorenz E, Reindl M, Wiedermann CJ, Oberhollenzer F, Bonora E, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and atherogenesis in humans. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 18592.
  • 20
    Schett G, Kiechl S, Redlich K, Oberhollenzer F, Weger S, Egger G, et al. Soluble RANKL and risk of nontraumatic fracture. JAMA 2004; 291: 110813.
  • 21
    Kiechl S, Schett G, Wenning G, Redlich K, Oberhollenzer F, Mayr A, et al. Osteoprotegerin is a risk factor for progressive atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2004; 109: 217580.
  • 22
    Kiechl S, Willeit J, Egger G, Poewe W, Oberhollenzer F. Body iron stores and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results from the Bruneck Study. Circulation 1997; 96: 33007.
  • 23
    Altman R, Asch E, Bloch D, Bole G, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. Development of criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis: classification of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 103949.
  • 24
    Altman R, Alarcon G, Appelrouth D, Bloch D, Borenstein D, Brandt K, et al. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 50514.
  • 25
    Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, Buse J, Defronzo R, Kahn R, et al, Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 31607.
  • 26
    Walker A, Robins M, Weinfeld F. The National Survey of Stroke: clinical findings. Stroke 1981; 12: 1349.
  • 27
    Gillum RF, Fortmann SP, Prineas RJ, Kottke TE. International diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction and acute stroke. Am Heart J 1984; 108: 1508.
  • 28
    Targher G, Bonadonna RC, Alberiche M, Zenere MB, Muggeo M, Bonora E. Relation between soluble adhesion molecules and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic individuals: role of adipose tissue. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 19616.
  • 29
    DeLong ER, DeLong DM, Clarke-Pearson DL. Comparing the areas under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic curves: a nonparametric approach. Biometrics 1988; 44: 83745.
  • 30
    Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology 1983; 148: 83943.
  • 31
    Cybulsky MI, Fries JW, Williams AJ, Sultan P, Eddy R, Bayers M, et al. Gene structure, chromosomal location, and basis for alternative mRNA splicing of the human VCAM1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 785963.
  • 32
    Kriegsmann J, Keyszer GM, Geiler T, Brauer R, Gay RE, Gay S. Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA and protein in rheumatoid synovium demonstrated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Lab Invest 1995; 72: 20914.
  • 33
    Fain JN, Nesbit AS, Sudlow FF, Cheema P, Peeples JM, Madan AK, et al. Release in vitro of adipsin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, angiotensin 1-converting enzyme, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 by human omental adipose tissue as well as by the nonfat cells and adipocytes. Metabolism 2007; 56: 158390.
  • 34
    Pottie P, Presle N, Terlain B, Netter P, Mainard D, Berenbaum F. Obesity and osteoarthritis: more complex than predicted. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 14035.
  • 35
    Oertli B, Beck-Schimmer B, Fan X, Wuthrich RP. Mechanisms of hyaluronan-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression by murine kidney tubular epithelial cells: hyaluronan triggers cell adhesion molecule expression through a mechanism involving activation of nuclear factor-κ B and activating protein-1. J Immunol 1998; 161: 34317.
  • 36
    Kienzle G, von Kempis J. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD106) on primary human articular chondrocytes: functional regulation of expression by cytokines and comparison with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) and very late activation antigen 2. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 1296305.
  • 37
    Ioannidis JP, Allison DB, Ball CA, Coulibaly I, Cui X, Culhane AC, et al. Repeatability of published microarray gene expression analyses. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 14955.
  • 38
    Baecke JA, Burema J, Frijters JE. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 93642.
  • 39
    Willeit J, Kiechl S. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis. A population-based study. Arterioscler Thromb 1993; 13: 6618.