• 1
    Liang MH, Cullen KE, Larson MG, Thompson MS, Schwartz JA, Fossel AH, et al. Cost-effectiveness of total joint arthroplasty in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 93743.
  • 2
    Chang RW, Pellisier JM, Hazen GB. A cost-effectiveness analysis of total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the hip. JAMA 1996; 275: 85865.
  • 3
    Rand JA, Ilstrup DM. Survivorship analysis of total knee arthroplasty: cumulative rates of survival of 9200 total knee arthroplasties. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991; 73: 397409.
  • 4
    Scuderi GR, Insall JN, Windsor RE, Moran MC. Survivorship of cemented knee replacements. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1989; 71B: 798803.
  • 5
    Kirwan JR, Currey HL, Freeman MA, Snow S, Young PJ. Overall long-term impact of total hip and knee joint replacement surgery on patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 35760.
  • 6
    Hawker G, Wright J, Coyte P, Paul J, Dittus R, Croxford R, et al. Health-related quality of life after knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998; 80: 16373.
  • 7
    Callahan CM, Drake BG, Heck DA, Dittus RS. Patient outcomes following unicompartmental or bicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis. J Arthroplasty 1995; 10: 14150.
  • 8
    Callahan CM, Drake BG, Heck DA, Dittus RS. Patient outcomes following tricompartmental total knee replacement: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1994; 271: 134957.
  • 9
    Williams MH, Frankel SJ, Nanchahl K, Coast J, Donovan JL. Total hip replacement. In: StevensA, RafteryJ, editors. Health care needs assessment: the epidemiological based needs assessment review. Vol. 1. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press; 1994.
  • 10
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Effective health care bulletin: total hip replacement. York (UK): NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; 1996.
  • 11
    Walker DJ, Heslop PS, Chandler C, Pinder IM. Measured ambulation and self-reported health status following total joint replacement for the osteoarthritic knee. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002; 41: 7558.
  • 12
    McMurray A, Grant S, Griffiths S, Letford A. Health-related quality of life and health service use following total hip replacement surgery. J Adv Nurs 2002; 40: 66372.
  • 13
    Department of Health. The musculoskeletal services framework. A joint responsibility: doing it differently. 2006. URL:
  • 14
    Fear J, Hillman M, Chamberlain MA, Tennant A. Prevalence of hip problems in the population aged 55 years and over: access to specialist care and future demand for hip arthroplasty. Br J Rheumatol 1997; 36: 746.
  • 15
    Tennant A, Fear J, Pickering A, Hillman M, Cutts A, Chamberlain MA. Prevalence of knee problems in the population aged 55 years and over: identifying the need for knee arthroplasty. BMJ 1995; 310: 12913.
  • 16
    Juni P, Dieppe P, Donovan J, Peters T, Eachus J, Pearson N, et al. Population requirement for primary knee replacement surgery: a cross-sectional study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2003; 42: 51621.
  • 17
    Frankel S, Eachus J, Pearson N, Greenwood R, Chan P, Peters TJ, et al. Population requirement for primary hip-replacement surgery: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 1999; 353: 13049.
  • 18
    Yong PF, Milner PC, Payne JN, Lewis PA, Jennison C. Inequalities in access to knee joint replacements for people in need. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 14839.
  • 19
    Milner PC, Payne JN, Stanfield RC, Lewis PA, Jennison C, Saul C. Inequalities in accessing hip joint replacement for people in need. Eur J Public Health 2004; 14: 5862.
  • 20
    Hawker GA, Wright JG, Coyte PC, Williams JI, Harvey B, Glazier R, et al. Determining the need for hip and knee arthroplasty: the role of clinical severity and patients' preferences. Med Care 2001; 39: 20616.
  • 21
    Steel N, Melzer D, Gardener E, McWilliams B. Need for and receipt of hip and knee replacement: a national population survey. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006; 45: 143741.
  • 22
    Hawker GA, Wright JG, Glazier RH, Coyte PC, Harvey B, Williams JI, et al. The effect of education and income on need and willingness to undergo total joint arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 33319.
  • 23
    Hawker GA, Wright JG, Coyte PC, Williams JI, Harvey B, Glazier R, et al. Differences between men and women in the rate of use of hip and knee arthroplasty. N Engl J Med 2002; 342: 101622.
  • 24
    Peters TJ, Eachus JI. Achieving equal probability of selection under various random sampling strategies. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1995; 9: 21924.
  • 25
    Hadorn DC, Holmes AC. The New Zealand priority criteria project. Part 1: overview. BMJ 1997; 314: 1314.
  • 26
    Toye F, Barlow J, Wright C, Lamb SE. A validation study of the New Zealand score for hip and knee surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2007; 464: 1905.
  • 27
    Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General. Hip replacements: an update. London: National Audit Office; 2003.
  • 28
    Marmot M, Banks J, Blundell R, Erens B, Lessof C, Nazroo J, et al. English Longitudinal Study of Ageing: wave 0 (1998, 1999 and 2001) and waves 1-3 (2002-2007). 10th ed. Essex: UK Data Archive; 2008.
  • 29
    Noble M, Wright G, Dibben C, Smith G, McLennan D, Antilla C, et al. Indices of deprivation 2004: report to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. London: Neighbourhood Renewal Unit; 2004.
  • 30
    Ang DC, Ibrahim SA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Is there a difference in the perception of symptoms between African Americans and whites with osteoarthritis? J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 130510.
  • 31
    Kelaher M, Paul S, Lambert H, Ahmad W, Smith GD. The impact of different measures of socioeconomic position on the relationship between ethnicity and health. Ann Epidemiol 2008; 18: 3516.
  • 32
    Dieppe P, Judge A, Williams S, Ikwueke I, Guenther KP, Floeren M, et al. Variations in the pre-operative status of patients coming to primary hip replacement for osteoarthritis in European orthopaedic centres. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2009; 10: 19.
  • 33
    Ethgen O, Bruyere O, Richy F, Dardennes C, Reginster JY. Health-related quality of life in total hip and total knee arthroplasty: a qualitative and systematic review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86A: 96374.
  • 34
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt LW. Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 183340.
  • 35
    Lequesne MG, Mery C, Samson M, Gerard P. Indexes of severity for osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: validation. Value in comparison with other assessment tests. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 1987; 65: 859.
  • 36
    Dreinhofer KE, Dieppe P, Sturmer T, Grober-Gratz D, Floren M, Gunther KP, et al. Indications for total hip replacement: comparison of assessments of orthopaedic surgeons and referring physicians. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 134650.
  • 37
    Hawker GA, Wright JG, Badley EM, Coyte PC, for the Toronto Arthroplasty Health Services Research Consortium. Perceptions of, and willingness to consider, total joint arthroplasty in a population-based cohort of individuals with disabling hip and knee arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 63541.
  • 38
    Byrne MM, Souchek J, Richardson M, Suarez-Almazor M. Racial/ethnic differences in preferences for total knee replacement surgery. J Clin Epidemiol 2006; 59: 107886.
  • 39
    Hawker GA, Guan J, Croxford R, Coyte PC, Glazier RH, Harvey BJ, et al. A prospective population-based study of the predictors of undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 321220.
  • 40
    Dieppe P, Dixon D, Horwood J, Pollard B, Johnston M, and the MOBILE research team. MOBILE and the provision of total joint replacement. J Health Serv Res Policy 2008; 13 Suppl 3: 4756.
  • 41
    Sanders C, Donovan JL, Dieppe PA. Unmet need for joint replacement: a qualitative investigation of barriers to treatment among individuals with severe pain and disability of the hip and knee. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43: 3537.
  • 42
    Jinks C, Ong BN, Richardson J. A mixed methods study to investigate needs assessment for knee pain and disability: population and individual perspectives. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2007; 8: 59.
  • 43
    Hudak PL, Clark JP, Hawker GA, Coyte PC, Mahomed NN, Kreder HJ, et al. “You're perfect for the procedure! Why don't you want it?” Elderly arthritis patients' unwillingness to consider total joint arthroplasty surgery: a qualitative study. Med Decis Making 2002; 22: 2728.
  • 44
    Ballantyne PJ, Gignac MA, Hawker GA. A patient-centered perspective on surgery avoidance for hip or knee arthritis: lessons for the future. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 2734.
  • 45
    Gignac MA, Davis AM, Hawker G, Wright JG, Mahomed N, Fortin PR, et al. “What do you expect? You're just getting older”: a comparison of perceived osteoarthritis-related and aging-related health experiences in middle- and older-age adults. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 55: 90512.
  • 46
    Sanders C, Donovan J, Dieppe P. The significance and consequences of having painful and disabled joints in older age: co-existing accounts of normal and disrupted biographies. Sociol Health Illn 2002; 24: 22753.
  • 47
    Ibrahim SA, Siminoff LA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Differences in expectations of outcome mediate African American/white patient differences in “willingness” to consider joint replacement. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 242935.
  • 48
    Department of Health. Delivering investment in general practice: implementing the new GMS contract. 2003. URL: