• 1
    Solomon DH, Kavanaugh AJ, Schur PH, and the American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Immunologic Testing Guidelines. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of immunologic tests: antinuclear antibody testing. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 47: 43444.
  • 2
    Fritzler MJ, Pauls JD, Kinsella TD, Bowen TJ. Antinuclear, anticytoplasmic, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome antigen A (SS-A/Ro) antibodies in female blood donors. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1985; 36: 1208.
  • 3
    Vrethem M, Skogh T, Berlin G, Ernerudh J. Autoantibodies versus clinical symptoms in blood donors. J Rheumatol 1992; 199: 191921.
  • 4
    De Vlam K, De Keyser F, Verbruggen M, Vandenbossche M, Vanneuville B, D'Haese D, et al. Detection and identification of antinuclear autoantibodies in the serum of normal blood donors. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1993; 11: 3937.
  • 5
    Forslid J, Heigl Z, Jonsson J, Scheynius A. The prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in healthy young persons and adults, comparing rat liver tissue sections with HEp-2 cells as antigen substrate. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1994; 12: 13741.
  • 6
    Tan EM, Feltkamp TE, Smolen JS, Butcher B, Dawkins R, Fritzler MJ, et al. Range of antinuclear antibodies in “healthy” individuals. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 160111.
  • 7
    Fernandez SA, Lobo AZ, Prado de Oliveira ZN, Fukumori LM, Perigo AM, Rivitti EA. Prevalence of antinuclear autoantibodies in the serum of normal blood donors. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2003; 58: 3159.
  • 8
    Watanabe A, Kodera M, Sugiura K, Usuda T, Tan EM, Takasaki Y, et al. Anti-DFS70 antibodies in 597 healthy hospital workers. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 892900.
  • 9
    Al Jabri AA, Al Buloshi MS. Anticardiolipin and antinuclear antibodies in the adult healthy Omani individuals. Saudi Med J 2004; 25: 3137.
  • 10
    Arbuckle MR, McClain MT, Rubertone MV, Scofield RH, Dennis GJ, James JA, et al. Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 152633.
  • 11
    Nielen MM, van Schaardenburg D, Reesink HW, van de Stadt RJ, van der Horst-Bruinsma IE, de Koning MH, et al. Specific autoantibodies precede the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a study of serial measurements in blood donors. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 3806.
  • 12
    Lacroix-Desmazes S, Kaveri SV, Mouthon L, Ayouba A, Malanchere E, Coutinho A, et al. Self-reactive antibodies (natural autoantibodies) in healthy individuals. J Immunol Methods 1998; 216: 11737.
  • 13
    Takasaki Y, Fishwild D, Tan EM. Characterization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen recognized by autoantibodies in lupus sera. J Exp Med 1984; 159: 98192.
  • 14
    Andrade LE, Chan EK, Raska I, Peebles CL, Roos G, Tan EM. Human autoantibody to a novel protein of the nuclear coiled body: immunological characterization and cDNA cloning of p80-coilin. J Exp Med 1991; 173: 140719.
  • 15
    Andrade LE, Chan EK, Peebles CL, Tan EM. Two major autoantigen–antibody systems of the mitotic spindle apparatus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 164353.
  • 16
    Whitehead CM, Winkfein RJ, Fritzler MJ, Rattner JB. The spindle kinesin-like protein HsEg5 is an autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 163542.
  • 17
    Casiano CA, Humbel RL, Peebles C, Covini G, Tan EM. Autoimmunity to the cell cycle-dependent centromere protein p330d/CENP-F in disorders associated with cell proliferation. J Autoimmun 1995; 8: 57586.
  • 18
    Ochs RL, Stein TW Jr, Peebles CL, Gittes RF, Tan EM. Autoantibodies in interstitial cystitis. J Urol 1994; 151: 58792.
  • 19
    Dellavance A, Viana VS, Leon EP, Bonfa ES, Andrade LE, Leser PG. The clinical spectrum of antinuclear antibodies associated with the nuclear dense fine speckled immunofluorescence pattern. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 21449.
  • 20
    Dellavance A, Gallindo C, Soares MG, da Silva NP, Mortara RA, Andrade LE. Redefining the Scl-70 indirect immunofluorescence pattern: autoantibodies to DNA topoisomerase I yield a specific compound immunofluorescence pattern. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2009; 48: 6327.
  • 21
    Ayaki M, Ohoguro N, Azuma N, Majima Y, Yata K, Ibaraki N, et al. Detection of cytotoxic anti-LEDGF autoantibodies in atopic dermatitis. Autoimmunity 2002; 35: 31927.
  • 22
    Ochs RL, Muro Y, Si Y, Ge H, Chan EK, Tan EM. Autoantibodies to DFS 70 kd/transcription coactivator p75 in atopic dermatitis and other conditions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 105: 121120.
  • 23
    Hochberg MC, for the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American College of Rheumatology. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
  • 24
    Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee. Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23: 58190.
  • 25
    Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Jonsson R, Moutsopoulos HM, Alexander EL, Carsons SE, et al, and the European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren's Syndrome. Classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American–European Consensus Group. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 5548.
  • 26
    Bohan A, Peter JB. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 3447.
  • 27
    Nakamura RM, Peebles CL, Rubin RL, Molden DP, Tan EM. Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens (ANA): advances in laboratory tests and significance in systemic rheumatic diseases. 2nd ed. Chicago: American Society of Clinical Pathology Press; 1985. p. 10940.
  • 28
    Aarden LA, de Groot ER, Feltkamp TE. Immunology of DNA. III. Crithidia luciliae, a simple substrate for the determination of anti-dsDNA with the immunofluorescence technique. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1975; 254: 50515.
  • 29
    Hayashi N, Koshiba M, Nishimura K, Sugiyama D, Nakamura T, Morinobu S, et al. Prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies in general population: estimates from annual physical examinations of residents of a small town over a 5-year period. Mod Rheumatol 2008; 18: 15360.
  • 30
    Lleo A, Battezzati PM, Selmi C, Gershi ME, Podda M. Is autoimmunity a matter of sex? Autoimmun Rev 2008; 7: 62630.
  • 31
    Candore G, Di Lorenzo G, Mansueto P, Melluso M, Frada G, Li Vecchi M, et al. Prevalence of organ-specific and non organ-specific autoantibodies in healthy centenarians. Mech Ageing Dev 1997; 94: 18390.
  • 32
    Hurme M, Korkki S, Lehtimaki T, Karhunen PJ, Jylha M, Hervonen A, et al. Autoimmunity and longevity: presence of antinuclear antibodies is not associated with the rate of inflammation or mortality in nonagenarians. Mech Ageing Dev 2007; 128: 4078.
  • 33
    Slater CA, Davis RB, Shmerling RH. Antinuclear antibody testing: a study of clinical utility. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 14215.
  • 34
    Tan EM, Chan EK. Molecular biology of autoantigens and new insights into autoimmunity. Clin Investig 1993; 71: 32730.
  • 35
    Humbel RL. Detection of antinuclear antibodies by immunofluorescence. In: van VenrooijWJ, MainiRN, editors. Manual of biological markers of disease. Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1993. A2: p. 116.
  • 36
    Wiik AS. Anti-nuclear autoantibodies: clinical utility for diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring, and planning of treatment strategy in systemic immunoinflammatory diseases. Scand J Rheumatol 2005; 34: 2608.
  • 37
    Lyons R, Narain S, Nichols C, Satoh M, Reeves WH. Effective use of autoantibody tests in the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005; 1050: 21728.
  • 38
    Manoussakis MN, Tzioufas AG, Silis MP, Pange PJ, Goudevenos J, Moutsopoulos HM. High prevalence of anti-cardiolipin and other autoantibodies in a healthy elderly population. Clin Exp Immunol 1987; 69: 55765.
  • 39
    Ruffati A, Rossi L, Calligaro A, Del Ross T, Lagni M, Marson P, et al. Autoantibodies of systemic rheumatic diseases in the healthy elderly. Gerontology 1990; 36: 10411.
  • 40
    Xavier RM, Yamauchi Y, Nakamura M, Tanigawa Y, Ishikura H, Tsunematsu T, et al. Antinuclear antibodies in healthy aging people: a prospective study. Mech Ageing Dev 1995; 78: 14554.
  • 41
    Dinser R, Braun A, Jendro MC, Engel A. Increased titres of anti-nuclear antibodies do not predict the development of associated disease in the absence of initial suggestive signs and symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol 2007; 36: 44851.