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Abstract

Objective

To identify predictors of wait-listing for kidney transplantation, kidney transplantation, and mortality among children with lupus nephritis–associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Methods

Children ages 5–18 years with new-onset lupus nephritis–associated ESRD were identified in the US Renal Data System (1995–2006). Demographic and clinical characteristics, causes of death, and predictors of wait-listing for kidney transplantation, kidney transplantation, and mortality during the first 5 years of ESRD were investigated. Cox proportional hazards models were used.

Results

A total of 583 children had incident lupus nephritis–associated ESRD. The mean ± SD age of the patients at the time of ESRD onset was 16.2 ± 2.4 years; 49% were African American, and 24% were Hispanic. During the 5-year period after the onset of ESRD, 292 (49%) were wait-listed, 193 (33%) received a kidney transplant, and 131 (22%) died. The main causes of death were cardiopulmonary (31%) and infectious (16%). Children living in the northeast and west were more than twice as likely as children in the south to be wait-listed and were >50% more likely than children in the south to undergo transplantation. There were fewer kidney transplants among older versus younger patients (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, P = 0.009), African American versus white patients (OR 0.48, P < 0.001), Hispanic versus non-Hispanic patients (OR 0.63, P = 0.03), and those with Medicaid versus those with private insurance (OR 0.70, P = 0.03). Mortality among African American children was almost double that among white children (OR 1.83, P < 0.001).

Conclusion

Among US children with lupus nephritis–associated ESRD, age, race, ethnicity, type of medical insurance, and geographic region were associated with significant variation in 5-year wait-listing for kidney transplantation, kidney transplantation, and mortality.