• 1
    Buchbinder R, Forbes A, Hall S, Dennett X, Giles G. Incidence of malignant disease in biopsy-proven inflammatory myopathy: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 108795.
  • 2
    Sigurgeirsson B, Lindelof B, Edhag O, Allander E. Risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis: a population-based study. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 3637.
  • 3
    Zantos D, Zhang Y, Felson D. The overall and temporal association of cancer with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 18559.
  • 4
    Chow WH, Gridley G, Mellemkjaer L, McLaughlin JK, Olsen JH, Fraumeni JF Jr. Cancer risk following polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. Cancer Causes Control 1995; 6: 913.
  • 5
    Hill CL, Zhang Y, Sigurgeirsson B, Pukkala E, Mellemkjaer L, Airio A, et al. Frequency of specific cancer types in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a population-based study. Lancet 2001; 357: 96100.
  • 6
    Basset-Seguin N, Roujeau JC, Gherardi R, Guillaume JC, Revuz J, Touraine R. Prognostic factors and predictive signs of malignancy in adult dermatomyositis: a study of 32 cases. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126: 6337.
  • 7
    Amoura Z, Duhaut P, Huong DL, Wechsler B, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Frances C, et al. Tumor antigen markers for the detection of solid cancers in inflammatory myopathies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 127982.
  • 8
    Andras C, Ponyi A, Constantin T, Csiki Z, Szekanecz E, Szodoray P, et al. Dermatomyositis and polymyositis associated with malignancy: a 21-year retrospective study. J Rheumatol 2008; 35: 43844.
  • 9
    Fardet L, Dupuy A, Gain M, Kettaneh A, Cherin P, Bachelez H, et al. Factors associated with underlying malignancy in a retrospective cohort of 121 patients with dermatomyositis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2009; 88: 917.
  • 10
    Targoff IN, Mamyrova G, Trieu EP, Perurena O, Koneru B, O'Hanlon TP, et al, for the Childhood Myositis Heterogeneity and International Myositis Collaborative Study Groups. A novel autoantibody to a 155-kd protein is associated with dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 36829.
  • 11
    Kaji K, Fujimoto M, Hasegawa M, Kondo M, Saito Y, Komura K, et al. Identification of a novel autoantibody reactive with 155 and 140 kDa nuclear proteins in patients with dermatomyositis: an association with malignancy. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46: 258.
  • 12
    Chinoy H, Fertig N, Oddis CV, Ollier WE, Cooper RG. The diagnostic utility of myositis autoantibody testing for predicting the risk of cancer-associated myositis. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 13459.
  • 13
    Gunawardena H, Wedderburn LR, North J, Betteridge Z, Dunphy J, Chinoy H, et al, for the Juvenile Dermatomyositis Research Group UK. Clinical associations of autoantibodies to a p155/140 kDa doublet protein in juvenile dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 3248.
  • 14
    Fujikawa K, Kawakami A, Kaji K, Fujimoto M, Kawashiri S, Iwamoto N, et al. Association of distinct clinical subsets with myositis-specific autoantibodies towards anti-155/140-kDa polypeptides, anti-140-kDa polypeptides, and anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases in Japanese patients with dermatomyositis: a single-centre, cross-sectional study. Scand J Rheumatol 2009; 38: 2637.
  • 15
    Trallero-Araguas E, Labrador-Horrillo M, Selva-O'Callaghan A, Martinez MA, Martínez-Gomez X, Palou E, et al. Cancer-associated myositis and anti-p155 autoantibody in a series of 85 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Medicine (Baltimore) 2010; 89: 4752.
  • 16
    PubMed. National Center for Biotechnology Information: National Library of Medicine. URL:
  • 17
    EMBase. Elsevier BV. URL:
  • 18
    La Biblioteca Cochrane Plus. Update Software, Ltd. URL:
  • 19
    ISI Web of Knowledge. Thomson Reuters. URL:
  • 20
    Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. BIREME/OPS/OMS Centro Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Información en Ciencias de la Salud. URL:
  • 21
    Bohan A, Peter JB. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 3447.
  • 22
    Bohan A, Peter JB. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 4037.
  • 23
    Sontheimer RD. Cutaneous features of classic dermatomyositis and amyopathic dermatomyositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1999; 11: 47582.
  • 24
    Whiting P, Rutjes AW, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PM, Kleijnen J. The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2003; 3: 25.
  • 25
    Troyanov Y, Targoff IN, Tremblay JL, Goulet JR, Raymond Y, Senecal JL. Novel classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies based on overlap syndrome features and autoantibodies: analysis of 100 French Canadian patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2005; 84: 23149.
  • 26
    Reitsma JB, Glas AS, Rutjes AW, Scholten RJ, Bossuyt PM, Zwinderman AH. Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 98290.
  • 27
    Dwamena BA. Midas: computational and graphical routines for meta-analytical integration of diagnostic accuracy studies in Stata. Ann Arbor (MI): University of Michigan Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology; 2007.
  • 28
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003; 327: 55760.
  • 29
    Deeks JJ, Macaskill P, Irwig L. The performance of tests of publication bias and other sample size effects in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy was assessed. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 88293.
  • 30
    Stata/SE statistical software: version 10.1. College Station (TX): StataCorp; 2010.
  • 31
    Harbord RM. Metandi: Stata module for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. Boston (MA): Statistical Software Components, Boston College Department of Economics; 2008.
  • 32
    Love LA, Leff RL, Fraser DD, Targoff IN, Dalakas M, Plotz PH, et al. A new approach to the classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: myositis-specific autoantibodies define useful homogeneous patient groups. Medicine (Baltimore) 1991; 70: 3604.
  • 33
    Airio A, Pukkala E, Isomaki H. Elevated cancer incidence in patients with dermatomyositis: a population based study. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 13003.
  • 34
    Swets JA. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 1988; 240: 128593.
  • 35
    Titulaer MJ, Soffietti T, Dalmau J, Gilhus NE, Giometto B, Graus F, et al. Screening for tumours in paraneoplastic syndromes: report of an EFNS Task Force. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 19e3.
  • 36
    Selva-O'Callaghan A, Trallero-Araguas E, Grau-Junyent JM, Labrador-Horrillo M. Malignancy and myositis: novel autoantibodies and new insights. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2010; 22: 62732.
  • 37
    Targoff IN, Trieu EP, Levy-Neto M, Prasertsuntarasai T, Miller FW. Autoantibodies to transcriptional intermediary factor 1-gamma (TIF1-g) in dermatomyositis [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54 Suppl: S518.
  • 38
    Hoshino K, Muro Y, Sugiura K, Tomita Y, Nakashima R, Mimori T. Anti-MDA5 and anti-TIF1-γ antibodies have clinical significance for patients with dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2010; 49: 172633.