SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr, McInnes IB, Ruddy S, Sergent JS, editors. Kelley's textbook of rheumatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2008.
  • 2
    Van der Helm-van Mil AH, Verpoort KN, Breedveld FC, Huizinga TW, Toes RE, de Vries RR. The HLA–DRB1 shared epitope alleles are primarily a risk factor for anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and are not an independent risk factor for development of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 111721.
  • 3
    Irigoyen P, Lee AT, Wener MH, Li W, Kern M, Batliwalla F, et al. Regulation of anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: contrasting effects of HLA–DR3 and the shared epitope alleles. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 38138.
  • 4
    Farragher TM, Goodson NJ, Naseem H, Silman AJ, Thomson W, Symmons D, et al. Association of the HLA–DRB1 gene with premature death, particularly from cardiovascular disease, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory polyarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 35969.
  • 5
    Mewar D, Coote A, Moore DJ, Marinou I, Keyworth J, Dickson MC, et al. Independent associations of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor with radiographic severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8: R128.
  • 6
    Feitsma AL, van der Helm-van Mil AH, Huizinga TW, de Vries RR, Toes RE. Protection against rheumatoid arthritis by HLA: nature and nurture. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 Suppl III: iii613.
  • 7
    Winchester R. A golden anniversary: recognition that rheumatoid arthritis sera contain autoantibodies specific for determinants on native IgG molecules. J Immunol 2007; 178: 12278.
  • 8
    Nielen MM, van Schaardenburg D, Reesink HW, van de Stadt RJ, van der Horst-Bruinsma IE, de Koning MH, et al. Specific autoantibodies precede the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a study of serial measurements in blood donors. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 3806.
  • 9
    Atkinson JP, Yu CY. Genetic susceptibility and class III complement genes. In: Lahita RG, Buyon JP, Koike T, Tsokos GC, editors. Systemic lupus erythematosus. 5th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press; 2011. p. 2145.
  • 10
    Manderson AP, Botto M, Walport MJ. The role of complement in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Annu Rev Immunol 2004; 22: 43156.
  • 11
    Carroll MC. The role of complement and complement receptors in induction and regulation of immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 1998; 16: 54568.
  • 12
    Law SK, Dodds AW, Porter RR. A comparison of the properties of two classes, C4A and C4B, of the human complement component C4. EMBO J 1984; 3: 181923.
  • 13
    Isenman DE, Young JR. The molecular basis for the differences in immune hemolysis activity of the Chido and Rodgers isotypes of human complement component C4. J Immunol 1984; 132: 301927.
  • 14
    Yu CY, Belt KT, Giles CM, Campbell RD, Porter RR. Structural basis of the polymorphism of human complement component C4A and C4B: gene size, reactivity and antigenicity. EMBO J 1986; 5: 287381.
  • 15
    Awdeh ZL, Alper CA. Inherited structural polymorphism of the fourth component of human complement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1980; 77: 357680.
  • 16
    Nonaka M, Nakayama K, Yeul YD, Takahashi M. Complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of the fourth component of mouse complement (C4). J Biol Chem 1985; 260: 1093643.
  • 17
    Sepich DS, Noonan DJ, Ogata RT. Complete cDNA sequence of the fourth component of murine complement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985; 82: 58959.
  • 18
    Dodds AW, Ren XD, Willis AC, Law SK. The reaction mechanism of the internal thioester in the human complement component C4. Nature 1996; 379: 1779.
  • 19
    McCarroll SA, Altshuler DM. Copy-number variation and association studies of human disease. Nat Genet 2007; 39: S3742.
  • 20
    Craddock N, Hurles ME, Cardin N, Pearson RD, Plagnol V, Robson S, et al. Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls. Nature 2010; 464: 71320.
  • 21
    McCarroll SA. Copy number variation and human genome maps. Nat Genet 2010; 42: 3656.
  • 22
    Yang Y, Chung EK, Wu YL, Savelli SL, Nagaraja HN, Zhou B, et al. Gene copy number variation and associated polymorphisms of complement component C4 in human systemic erythematosus (SLE): low copy number is a risk factor for and high copy number is a protective factor against European American SLE disease susceptibility. Am J Hum Genet 2007; 80: 103754.
  • 23
    Yang Y, Chung EK, Zhou B, Blanchong CA, Yu CY, Fust G, et al. Diversity in intrinsic strengths of the human complement system: serum C4 protein concentrations correlate with C4 gene size and polygenic variations, hemolytic activities and body mass index. J Immunol 2003; 171: 273445.
  • 24
    Wu YL, Yang Y, Chung EK, Zhou B, Kitzmiller KJ, Savelli SL, et al. Phenotypes, genotypes and disease susceptibility associated with gene copy number variations: complement C4 CNVs in European American healthy subjects and those with systemic lupus erythematosus. Cytogenet Genome Res 2008; 123: 13141.
  • 25
    Saxena K, Kitzmiller KJ, Wu YL, Zhou B, Esack N, Hiremath L, et al. Great genotypic and phenotypic diversities associated with copy-number variations of complement C4 and RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) modules: a comparison of Asian-Indian and European American populations. Mol Immunol 2009; 46: 1289303.
  • 26
    Blanchong CA, Zhou B, Rupert KL, Chung EK, Jones KN, Sotos JF, et al. Deficiencies of human complement component C4A and C4B and heterozygosity in length variants of RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) modules in Caucasians: the load of RCCX genetic diversity on MHC-associated disease. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 218396.
  • 27
    Fernando MM, Boteva L, Morris DL, Zhou B, Wu YL, Lokki ML, et al. Assessment of complement C4 gene copy number using the paralog ratio test. Hum Mutat 2010; 31: 86674.
  • 28
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 29
    Chung EK, Wu YL, Yang Y, Zhou B, Yu CY. Human complement components C4A and C4B genetic diversities: complex genotypes and phenotypes. Curr Protoc Immunol 2005; Chapter 13:Unit 13.8.
  • 30
    Chung EK, Yang Y, Rupert KL, Jones KN, Rennebohm RM, Blanchong CA, et al. Determining the one, two, three or four long and short loci of human complement C4 in a major histocompatibility complex haplotype encoding for C4A or C4B proteins. Am J Hum Genet 2002; 71: 81022.
  • 31
    Wu YL, Savelli SL, Yang Y, Zhou B, Rovin BH, Birmingham DJ, et al. Sensitive and specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to accurately determine copy-number variations (CNVs) of human complement C4A, C4B, C4-long, C4-short and RCCX modules: elucidation of C4 CNVs in 50 consanguineous subjects with defined HLA genotypes. J Immunol 2007; 179: 301225.
  • 32
    Meyer JM, Evans TI, Small RE, Redford TW, Han J, Singh R, et al. HLA-DRB1 genotype influences risk for and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 102434.
  • 33
    Korendowych E, Dixey J, Cox B, Jones S, McHugh N. The influence of the HLA-DRB1 rheumatoid arthritis shared epitope on the clinical characteristics and radiological outcome of psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 96101.
  • 34
    Raptopoulou A, Sidiropoulos P, Katsouraki M, Boumpas DT. Anti-citrulline antibodies in the diagnosis and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis: evolving concepts. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2007; 44: 33963.
  • 35
    Van Beers JJ, Raijmakers R, Alexander LE, Stammen-Vogelzangs J, Lokate AM, Heck AJ, et al. Mapping of citrullinated fibrinogen B-cell epitopes in rheumatoid arthritis by imaging surface plasmon resonance. Arthritis Res Ther 2010; 12: R219.
  • 36
    Clarkson R, Bate AS, Grennan DM, Chattopadhyay C, Sanders P, Davis M, et al. DQw7 and the C4B null allele in rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 1990; 49: 9769.