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REFERENCES: In support:

  1. REFERENCES: In support:
  2. In opposition:
  • 1
    Weber U, Lambert RG, Ostergaard M, Hodler J, Pedersen SJ, Maksymowych WP. The diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging in spondylarthritis: an international multicenter evaluation of one hundred eighty-seven subjects. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 304858.
  • 2
    Appel H, Loddenkemper C, Grozdanovic Z, Ebhardt H, Dreimann M, Hempfing A, et al. Correlation of histopathological findings and magnetic resonance imaging in the spine of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8: R143.
  • 3
    Bollow M, Fischer T, Reisshauer H, Backhaus M, Sieper J, Hamm B, et al. Quantitative analyses of sacroiliac biopsies in spondyloarthropathies: T cells and macrophages predominate in early and active sacroiliitis—cellularity correlates with the degree of enhancement detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 13540.
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    Lambert RG, Salonen D, Rahman P, Inman RD, Wong RL, Einstein SG, et al, for the M03-606 Study Group. Adalimumab significantly reduces both spinal and sacroiliac joint inflammation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 400514.
  • 5
    Braun J, Landewe R, Hermann KG, Han J, Yan S, Williamson P, et al, for the ASSERT Study Group. Major reduction in spinal inflammation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis after treatment with infliximab: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled magnetic resonance imaging study. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 164652.
  • 6
    Baraliakos X, Davis J, Tsuji W, Braun J. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis before and after therapy with the tumor necrosis factor α receptor fusion protein etanercept. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 121623.
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    Maksymowych WP, Chiowchanwisawakit P, Clare T, Pedersen SJ, Ostergaard M, Lambert RG. Inflammatory lesions of the spine on magnetic resonance imaging predict the development of new syndesmophytes in ankylosing spondylitis: evidence of a relationship between inflammation and new bone formation. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 93102.
  • 8
    Wanders A, van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Behier JM, Calin A, Olivieri I, et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reduce radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 175665.
  • 9
    Van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Einstein S, Ory P, Vosse D, Ni L, et al. Radiographic progression of ankylosing spondylitis after up to two years of treatment with etanercept. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 132431.
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    Van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Baraliakos X, Houben H, van Tubergen A, Williamson P, et al, and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Study for the Evaluation of Recombinant Infliximab Therapy Study Group. Radiographic findings following two years of infliximab therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 306370.
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    Van der Heijde D, Salonen D, Weissman BN, Landewe R, Maksymowych WP, Kupper H, et al. Assessment of radiographic progression in the spines of patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with adalimumab for up to 2 years. Arthritis Res Ther 2009; 11: R127.
  • 12
    Van der Heijde D, Machado P, Braun J, Hermann KG, Baraliakos X, Hsu B, et al. MRI inflammation at the vertebral unit only marginally predicts new syndesmophyte formation: a multilevel analysis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71: 36973.
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  • 14
    Diarra D, Stolina M, Polzer K, Zwerina J, Ominsky MS, Dwyer D, et al. Dickkopf-1 is a master regulator of joint remodeling. Nat Med 2007; 13: 15663.
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    Spoorenberg A, van der Heijde D, de Klerk E, Dougados M, de Vlam K, Mielants H, et al. A comparative study of the usefulness of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and the Dougados Functional Index in the assessment of ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 9615.
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    Baraliakos X, Haibel H, Listing J, Sieper J, Braun J. Radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis—results after up to 8 years of infliximab treatment [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63 Suppl: S208.
  • 17
    Chiowchanwisawakit P, Lambert RG, Conner-Spady B, Maksymowych WP. Focal fat lesions at vertebral corners on magnetic resonance imaging predict the development of new syndesmophytes in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63: 221525.
  • 18
    Yan D, Gurumurthy A, Wright M, Pfeiler TW, Loboa EG, Everett ET. Genetic background influences fluoride's effects on osteoclastogenesis. Bone 2007; 41: 103644.
  • 19
    Li CY, Schaffler MB, Wolde-Semait HT, Hernandez CJ, Jepsen KJ. Genetic background influences cortical bone response to ovariectomy. J Bone Miner Res 2005; 20: 21508.
  • 20
    Haroon N, Maksymowych WP, Rahman P, Tsui FW, O'Shea FD, Inman RD. Radiographic severity of ankylosing spondylitis is associated with polymorphism of the large multifunctional peptidase 2 gene in the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada cohort. Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64: 111926.
  • 21
    Haroon N, Tsui FW, Chiu B, Tsui HW, Inman RD. Serum cytokine receptors in ankylosing spondylitis: relationship to inflammatory markers and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase polymorphisms. J Rheumatol 2010; 37: 190710.
  • 22
    Gratacos J, Collado A, Filella X, Sanmarti R, Canete J, Llena J, et al. Serum cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ) in ankylosing spondylitis: a close correlation between serum IL-6 and disease activity and severity. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 92731.
  • 23
    Jacques P, Venken K, van Beneden K, Hammad H, Seeuws S, Drennan MB, et al. Invariant natural killer T cells are natural regulators of murine spondylarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 98899.
  • 24
    Armaka M, Apostolaki M, Jacques P, Kontoyiannis DL, Elewaut D, Kollias G. Mesenchymal cell targeting by TNF as a common pathogenic principle in chronic inflammatory joint and intestinal diseases. J Exp Med 2008; 205: 3317.
  • 25
    McGonagle D, Wakefield RJ, Tan AL, D'Agostino MA, Toumi H, Hayashi K, et al. Distinct topography of erosion and new bone formation in Achilles tendon enthesitis: implications for understanding the link between inflammation and bone formation in spondylarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 26949.

In opposition:

  1. REFERENCES: In support:
  2. In opposition: