• 1
    Swanson SA. Friction, wear, and lubrication. In: Freeman MA, editor. Adult articular cartilage. 2nd ed. Tunbridge Wells (UK): Pitman Medical; 1979. p. 41560.
  • 2
    Ateshian GA, Mow VC. Friction, lubrication, and wear of articular cartilage and diarthrodial joints. In: Mow VC, Huiskes R, editors. Basic orthopaedic biomechanics and mechano-biology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 44794.
  • 3
    Schmidt TA, Sah RL. Effect of synovial fluid on boundary lubrication of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007; 15: 3547.
  • 4
    Gleghorn JP, Bonassar LJ. Lubrication mode analysis of articular cartilage using Stribeck surfaces. J Biomech 2008; 41: 19108.
  • 5
    Jay GD. Characterization of a bovine synovial fluid lubricating factor. I. Chemical, surface activity and lubricating properties. Connect Tissue Res 1992; 28: 7188.
  • 6
    Ogston AG, Stanier JE. The physiological function of hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid: viscous, elastic and lubricant properties. J Physiol 1953; 119: 24452.
  • 7
    Swann DA, Silver FH, Slayter HS, Stafford W, Shore E. The molecular structure and lubricating activity of lubricin isolated from bovine and human synovial fluids. Biochem J 1985; 225: 195201.
  • 8
    Schumacher BL, Block JA, Schmid TM, Aydelotte MB, Kuettner KE. A novel proteoglycan synthesized and secreted by chondrocytes of the superficial zone of articular cartilage. Arch Biochem Biophys 1994; 311: 14452.
  • 9
    Schwarz IM, Hills BA. Surface-active phospholipids as the lubricating component of lubricin. Br J Rheumatol 1998; 37: 216.
  • 10
    Mazzucco D, Scott R, Spector M. Composition of joint fluid in patients undergoing total knee replacement and revision arthroplasty: correlation with flow properties. Biomaterials 2004; 25: 443345.
  • 11
    McIlwraith CW, Billinghurst RC, Frisbie DD. Current and future diagnostic means to better characterize osteoarthritis in the horse—routine synovial fluid analysis and synovial fluid and serum markers. AAEP Proc 2001;47: 171–91. URL:
  • 12
    Rabinowitz JL, Gregg JR, Nixon JE. Lipid composition of the tissues of human knee joints. II. Synovial fluid in trauma. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1984: 2928.
  • 13
    Sarma AV, Powell GL, LaBerge M. Phospholipid composition of articular cartilage boundary lubricant. J Orthop Res 2001; 19: 6716.
  • 14
    Zea-Aragon Z, Ohtsuki K, Ohnishi M, Ohno S. Immunohistochemical study of the upper surface layer in rat mandibular condylar cartilage. Histol Histopathol 2004; 19: 2936.
  • 15
    Schumacher BL, Hughes CE, Kuettner KE, Caterson B, Aydelotte MB. Immunodetection and partial cDNA sequence of the proteoglycan, superficial zone protein, synthesized by cells lining synovial joints. J Orthop Res 1999; 17: 11020.
  • 16
    Ikegawa S, Sano M, Koshizuka Y, Nakamura Y. Isolation, characterization and mapping of the mouse and human PRG4 (proteoglycan 4) genes. Cytogenet Cell Genet 2000; 90: 2917.
  • 17
    Reimann I. Pathological human synovial fluids: viscosity and boundary lubricating properties. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1976; 119: 23741.
  • 18
    Davis WH Jr, Lee SL, Sokoloff L. Boundary lubricating ability of synovial fluid in degenerative joint disease. Arthritis Rheum 1978; 21: 75460.
  • 19
    Jay GD, Elsaid KA, Zack J, Robinson K, Trespalacios F, Cha CJ, et al. Lubricating ability of aspirated synovial fluid from emergency department patients with knee joint synovitis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 55764.
  • 20
    Elsaid KA, Jay GD, Warman ML, Rhee DK, Chichester CO. Association of articular cartilage degradation and loss of boundary-lubricating ability of synovial fluid following injury and inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 174655.
  • 21
    Neu CP, Reddi AH, Komvopoulos K, Schmid TM, Di Cesare PE. Increased friction coefficient and superficial zone protein expression in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 26807.
  • 22
    Gleghorn JP, Jones AR, Flannery CR, Bonassar LJ. Boundary mode lubrication of articular cartilage by recombinant human lubricin. J Orthop Res 2009; 27: 7717.
  • 23
    Gelber AC, Hochberg MC, Mead LA, Wang NY, Wigley FM, Klag MJ. Joint injury in young adults and risk for subsequent knee and hip osteoarthritis. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 3218.
  • 24
    Wilder FV, Hall BJ, Barrett JP Jr, Lemrow NB. History of acute knee injury and osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective epidemiological assessment. The Clearwater Osteoarthritis Study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2002; 10: 6116.
  • 25
    Teeple E, Elsaid KA, Fleming BC, Jay GD, Aslani K, Crisco JJ, et al. Coefficients of friction, lubricin, and cartilage damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient guinea pig knee. J Orthop Res 2008; 26: 2317.
  • 26
    Jay GD, Torres JR, Rhee DK, Helminen HJ, Hytinnen MM, Cha CJ, et al. Association between friction and wear in diarthrodial joints lacking lubricin. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 36629.
  • 27
    Dahl LB, Dahl IM, Engstrom-Laurent A, Granath K. Concentration and molecular weight of sodium hyaluronate in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other arthropathies. Ann Rheum Dis 1985; 44: 81722.
  • 28
    Balazs EA, Watson D, Duff IF, Roseman S. Hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid. I. Molecular parameters of hyaluronic acid in normal and arthritis human fluids. Arthritis Rheum 1967; 10: 35776.
  • 29
    Fuller CJ, Barr AR, Sharif M, Dieppe PA. Cross-sectional comparison of synovial fluid biochemical markers in equine osteoarthritis and the correlation of these markers with articular cartilage damage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2001; 9: 4955.
  • 30
    Tulamo RM, Heiskanen T, Salonen M. Concentration and molecular weight distribution of hyaluronate in synovial fluid from clinically normal horses and horses with diseased joints. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 7105.
  • 31
    Schmidt TA, Gastelum NS, Nguyen QT, Schumacher BL, Sah RL. Boundary lubrication of articular cartilage: role of synovial fluid constituents. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 88291.
  • 32
    Ozturk HE, Stoffel K, Jones CF, Stachowiak GW. The effect of surface-active phospholipids on the lubrication of osteoarthritic sheep knee joints: friction. Tribol Lett 2004; 16: 2839.
  • 33
    Jay GD, Cha DJ. The effect of phospholipase digestion upon the boundary lubricating activity of synovial fluid. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 24547.
  • 34
    McIlwraith CW. Use of synovial fluid and serum biomarkers in equine bone and joint disease: a review. Equine Vet J 2005; 37: 47382.
  • 35
    Waddell DD. Viscosupplementation with hyaluronans for osteoarthritis of the knee: clinical efficacy and economic implications. Drugs Aging 2007; 24: 62942.
  • 36
    Rowley G, Antonas KN, Hilbert BJ. Quantitation of hyaluronic acid in equine synovia. Am J Vet Res 1982; 43: 10969.
  • 37
    Saari H, Konttinen YT, Tulamo RM, Antti-Poika I, Honkanen V. Concentration and degree of polymerization of hyaluronate in equine synovial fluid. Am J Vet Res 1989; 50: 20603.
  • 38
    Palmer JL, Bertone AL, McClain H. Assessment of glycosaminoglycan concentration in equine synovial fluid as a marker of joint disease. Can J Vet Res 1995; 59: 20512.
  • 39
    Fosang AJ, Hey NJ, Carney SL, Hardingham TE. An ELISA plate-based assay for hyaluronan using biotinylated proteoglycan G1 domain (HA-binding region). Matrix 1990; 10: 30613.
  • 40
    Blewis ME, Lao BJ, Schumacher BL, Bugbee WD, Sah RL, Firestein GS. Interactive cytokine regulation of synoviocyte lubricant secretion. Tissue Eng Part A 2010; 16: 132937.
  • 41
    Lee HG, Cowman MK. An agarose gel electrophoretic method for analysis of hyaluronan molecular weight distribution. Anal Biochem 1994; 219: 27887.
  • 42
    Benz M, Chen N, Jay G, Israelachvili J. Static forces, structure and flow properties of complex fluids in highly confined geometries. Ann Biomed Eng 2005; 33: 3951.
  • 43
    Wong BL, Kim SH, Antonacci JM, McIlwraith CW, Sah RL. Cartilage shear dynamics during tibio-femoral articulation: effect of acute joint injury and tribosupplementation on synovial fluid lubrication. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010; 18: 46471.
  • 44
    Tulamo RM, Houttu J, Tupamaki A, Salonen M. Hyaluronate and large molecular weight proteoglycans in synovial fluid from horses with various arthritides. Am J Vet Res 1996; 57: 9327.
  • 45
    Asari A, Miyauchi S, Sekiguchi T, Machida A, Kuriyama S, Miyazaki K, et al. Hyaluronan, cartilage destruction and hydrarthrosis in traumatic arthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2: 7989.
  • 46
    Praest BM, Greiling H, Kock R. Assay of synovial fluid parameters: hyaluronan concentration as a potential marker for joint diseases. Clin Chim Acta 1997; 266: 11728.
  • 47
    Goldberg VM, Buckwalter JA. Hyaluronans in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: evidence for disease-modifying activity. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2005; 13: 21624.
  • 48
    Jones AR, Chen S, Chai DH, Stevens AL, Gleghorn JP, Bonassar LJ, et al. Modulation of lubricin biosynthesis and tissue surface properties following cartilage mechanical injury. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 13342.
  • 49
    Elsaid KA, Machan JT, Waller K, Fleming BC, Jay GD. The impact of anterior cruciate ligament injury on lubricin metabolism and the effect of inhibiting tumor necrosis factor α on chondroprotection in an animal model. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 29973006.
  • 50
    Elsaid KA, Fleming BC, Oksendahl HL, Machan JT, Fadale PD, Hulstyn MJ, et al. Decreased lubricin concentrations and markers of joint inflammation in the synovial fluid of patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 170715.
  • 51
    Ballard BL, Antonacci JM, Temple-Wong MM, Hui AY, Schumacher BL, Bugbee WD, et al. Effect of tibial plateau fracture on lubrication function and composition of synovial fluid. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012; 94: e6419.
  • 52
    Fortier LA, Mohammed HO, Lust G, Nixon AJ. Insulin-like growth factor-I enhances cell-based repair of articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2002; 84: 27688.