• 1
    Buckwalter JA, Brown TD. Joint injury, repair, and remodeling: roles in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004; 423: 716.
  • 2
    Marsh JL, Borrelli J Jr, Dirschl DR, Sirkin MS. Fractures of the tibial plafond. Instr Course Lect 2007; 56: 33152.
  • 3
    Marsh JL, Weigel DP, Dirschl DR. Tibial plafond fractures: how do these ankles function over time? J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003; 85-A: 28795.
  • 4
    Hunziker EB. The elusive path to cartilage regeneration. Adv Mater 2009; 21: 341924.
  • 5
    Dowthwaite GP, Bishop JC, Redman SN, Khan IM, Rooney P, Evans DJ, et al. The surface of articular cartilage contains a progenitor cell population. J Cell Sci 2004; 117: 88997.
  • 6
    Grogan SP, Miyaki S, Asahara H, D'Lima DD, Lotz MK. Mesenchymal progenitor cell markers in human articular cartilage: normal distribution and changes in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2009; 11: R85.
  • 7
    Hattori S, Oxford C, Reddi AH. Identification of superficial zone articular chondrocyte stem/progenitor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 358: 99103.
  • 8
    Khan IM, Williams R, Archer CW. One flew over the progenitor's nest: migratory cells find a home in osteoarthritic cartilage. Cell Stem Cell 2009; 4: 2824.
  • 9
    Hilfiker A, Kasper C, Hass R, Haverich A. Mesenchymal stem cells and progenitor cells in connective tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: is there a future for transplantation? Langenbecks Arch Surg 2011; 396: 48997.
  • 10
    Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, Jaiswal RK, Douglas R, Mosca JD, et al. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 1999; 284: 1437.
  • 11
    Prockop DJ. Repair of tissues by adult stem/progenitor cells (MSCs): controversies, myths, and changing paradigms. Mol Ther 2009; 17: 93946.
  • 12
    Quesenberry PJ, Colvin G, Dooner G, Dooner M, Aliotta JM, Johnson K. The stem cell continuum: cell cycle, injury, and phenotype lability. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007; 1106: 209.
  • 13
    Spees JL, Whitney MJ, Sullivan DE, Lasky JA, Laboy M, Ylostalo J, et al. Bone marrow progenitor cells contribute to repair and remodeling of the lung and heart in a rat model of progressive pulmonary hypertension. FASEB J 2008; 22: 122636.
  • 14
    Williams RJ III, Harnly HW. Microfracture: indications, technique, and results. Instr Course Lect 2007; 56: 41928.
  • 15
    Alsalameh S, Amin R, Gemba T, Lotz M. Identification of mesenchymal progenitor cells in normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilage. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 152232.
  • 16
    Golebiewska A, Brons NH, Bjerkvig R, Niclou SP. Critical appraisal of the side population assay in stem cell and cancer stem cell research. Cell Stem Cell 2011; 8: 13647.
  • 17
    Koelling S, Kruegel J, Irmer M, Path JR, Sadowski B, Miro X, et al. Migratory chondrogenic progenitor cells from repair tissue during the later stages of human osteoarthritis. Cell Stem Cell 2009; 4: 32435.
  • 18
    Klune JR, Dhupar R, Cardinal J, Billiar TR, Tsung A. HMGB1: endogenous danger signaling. Mol Med 2008; 14: 47684.
  • 19
    Zhang Q, O'Hearn S, Kavalukas SL, Barbul A. Role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in wound healing. J Surg Res 2012; 176: 3437.
  • 20
    Jeannin P, Jaillon S, Delneste Y. Pattern recognition receptors in the immune response against dying cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2008; 20: 5307.
  • 21
    Foell D, Wittkowski H, Roth J. Mechanisms of disease: a ‘DAMP’ view of inflammatory arthritis. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2007; 3: 38290.
  • 22
    Meng E, Guo Z, Wang H, Jin J, Wang J, Wang H, et al. High mobility group box 1 protein inhibits the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and promotes their migration and differentiation along osteoblastic pathway. Stem Cells Dev 2008; 17: 80513.
  • 23
    Stich S, Loch A, Leinhase I, Neumann K, Kaps C, Sittinger M, et al. Human periosteum-derived progenitor cells express distinct chemokine receptors and migrate upon stimulation with CCL2, CCL25, CXCL8, CXCL12, and CXCL13. Eur J Cell Biol 2008; 87: 36576.
  • 24
    Chavakis E, Urbich C, Dimmeler S. Homing and engraftment of progenitor cells: a prerequisite for cell therapy. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2008; 45: 51422.
  • 25
    Palumbo R, Galvez BG, Pusterla T, De Marchis F, Cossu G, Marcu KB, et al. Cells migrating to sites of tissue damage in response to the danger signal HMGB1 require NF-κB activation. J Cell Biol 2007; 179: 3340.
  • 26
    Girard JP. A direct inhibitor of HMGB1 cytokine. Chem Biol 2007; 14: 3457.
  • 27
    Kitaori T, Ito H, Schwarz EM, Tsutsumi R, Yoshitomi H, Oishi S, et al. Stromal cell–derived factor 1/CXCR4 signaling is critical for the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the fracture site during skeletal repair in a mouse model. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 81323.
  • 28
    Kucia M, Jankowski K, Reca R, Wysoczynski M, Bandura L, Allendorf DJ, et al. CXCR4-SDF-1 signalling, locomotion, chemotaxis and adhesion. J Mol Histol 2004; 35: 23345.
  • 29
    Carter DR, Beaupre GS, Wong M, Smith RL, Andriacchi TP, Schurman DJ. The mechanobiology of articular cartilage development and degeneration. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004; 427 Suppl: S6977.
  • 30
    Duda GN, Eilers M, Loh L, Hoffman JE, Kaab M, Schaser K. Chondrocyte death precedes structural damage in blunt impact trauma. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2001; 393: 3029.
  • 31
    Isaac DI, Meyer EG, Haut RC. Chondrocyte damage and contact pressures following impact on the rabbit tibiofemoral joint. J Biomech Eng 2008; 130: 041018.
  • 32
    Phillips DM, Haut RC. The use of a non-ionic surfactant (P188) to save chondrocytes from necrosis following impact loading of chondral explants. J Orthop Res 2004; 22: 113542.
  • 33
    Rundell SA, Baars DC, Phillips DM, Haut RC. The limitation of acute necrosis in retro-patellar cartilage after a severe blunt impact to the in vivo rabbit patello-femoral joint. J Orthop Res 2005; 23: 13639.
  • 34
    Beecher BR, Martin JA, Pedersen DR, Heiner AD, Buckwalter JA. Antioxidants block cyclic loading induced chondrocyte death. Iowa Orthop J 2007; 27: 18.
  • 35
    Martin JA, McCabe D, Walter M, Buckwalter JA, McKinley TO. N-acetylcysteine inhibits post-impact chondrocyte death in osteochondral explants. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009; 91: 18907.
  • 36
    Goodwin W, McCabe D, Sauter E, Reese E, Walter M, Buckwalter JA, et al. Rotenone prevents impact-induced chondrocyte death. J Orthop Res 2010; 28: 105763.
  • 37
    Moussavi-Harami F, Mollano A, Martin JA, Ayoob A, Domann FE, Gitelis S, et al. Intrinsic radiation resistance in human chondrosarcoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 346: 37985.
  • 38
    Lee JW, Lim TH, Park JB. Intradiscal drug delivery system for the treatment of low back pain. J Biomed Mater Res A 2010; 92: 37885.
  • 39
    Mollica L, De Marchis F, Spitaleri A, Dallacosta C, Pennacchini D, Zamai M, et al. Glycyrrhizin binds to high-mobility group box 1 protein and inhibits its cytokine activities. Chem Biol 2007; 14: 43141.
  • 40
    Fiedler J, Etzel N, Brenner RE. To go or not to go: migration of human mesenchymal progenitor cells stimulated by isoforms of PDGF. J Cell Biochem 2004; 93: 9908.
  • 41
    Jiang Y, Jahagirdar BN, Reinhardt RL, Schwartz RE, Keene CD, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, et al. Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature 2002; 418: 419.
  • 42
    Seol D, Choe H, Zheng H, Jang K, Ramakrishnan PS, Lim TH, et al. Selection of reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in organ culture of the rat and rabbit intervertebral disc. BMC Res Notes 2011; 4: 162.
  • 43
    Kucia M, Reca R, Miekus K, Wanzeck J, Wojakowski W, Janowska-Wieczorek A, et al. Trafficking of normal stem cells and metastasis of cancer stem cells involve similar mechanisms: pivotal role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis. Stem Cells 2005; 23: 87994.
  • 44
    Wolff DA, Stevenson S, Goldberg VM. S-100 protein immunostaining identifies cells expressing a chondrocytic phenotype during articular cartilage repair. J Orthop Res 1992; 10: 4957.
  • 45
    Bao JP, Chen WP, Wu LD. Lubricin: a novel potential biotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Mol Biol Rep 2011; 38: 287985.
  • 46
    Jay GD, Fleming BC, Watkins BA, McHugh KA, Anderson SC, Zhang LX, et al. Prevention of cartilage degeneration and restoration of chondroprotection by lubricin tribosupplementation in the rat following anterior cruciate ligament transection. Arthritis Rheum 2010; 62: 238291.
  • 47
    Teeple E, Elsaid KA, Jay GD, Zhang L, Badger GJ, Akelman M, et al. Effects of supplemental intra-articular lubricin and hyaluronic acid on the progression of posttraumatic arthritis in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient rat knee. Am J Sports Med 2011; 39: 16472.
  • 48
    Hunziker EB, Rosenberg LC. Repair of partial-thickness defects in articular cartilage: cell recruitment from the synovial membrane. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 72133.
  • 49
    Wang Q, Breinan HA, Hsu HP, Spector M. Healing of defects in canine articular cartilage: distribution of nonvascular α-smooth muscle actin-containing cells. Wound Repair Regen 2000; 8: 14558.