• 1
    Sharma P, Sharma S, Baltaro R, Hurley J. Systemic vasculitis. Am Fam Physician 2011; 83: 55665.
  • 2
    Gibelin A, Maldini C, Mahr A. Epidemiology and etiology of Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome and Goodpasture syndrome: vasculitides with frequent lung involvement. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 32: 26473.
  • 3
    Miller DV, Maleszewski JJ. The pathology of large-vessel vasculitides. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011; 29: S928.
  • 4
    Calamia KT, Balabanova M. Vasculitis in systemic lupus erythematosis. Clin Dermatol 2004; 22: 14856.
  • 5
    Gomez-Puerta JA, Bosch X. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody pathogenesis in small-vessel vasculitis: an update. Am J Pathol 2009; 175: 17908.
  • 6
    Piggott K, Biousse V, Newman NJ, Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM. Vascular damage in giant cell arteritis. Autoimmunity 2009; 42: 596604.
  • 7
    Guilpain P, Mouthon L. Antiendothelial cells autoantibodies in vasculitis-associated systemic diseases. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2008; 35: 5965.
  • 8
    Pankhurst T, Savage CO, Little MA. Leukocyte-endothelial dysregulation in systemic small vessel vasculitis. Nephrology (Carlton) 2009; 14: 310.
  • 9
    Berden AE, Kallenberg CG, Savage CO, Yard BA, Abdulahad WH, de Heer E, et al. Cellular immunity in Wegener's granulomatosis: characterizing T lymphocytes [review]. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 157887.
  • 10
    Hu N, Westra J, Kallenberg CG. Dysregulated neutrophil– endothelial interaction in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides: implications for pathogenesis and disease intervention. Autoimmun Rev 2011; 10: 53643.
  • 11
    Weinberg JB, Granger DL, Pisetsky DS, Seldin MF, Misukonis MA, Mason SN, et al. The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of spontaneous murine autoimmune disease: increased nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase expression in MRL-lpr/lpr mice, and reduction of spontaneous glomerulonephritis and arthritis by orally administered NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 65160.
  • 12
    Woolfson RG, Qasim FJ, Thiru S, Oliveira DB, Neild GH, Mathieson PW. Nitric oxide contributes to tissue injury in mercuric chloride-induced autoimmunity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995; 217: 51521.
  • 13
    Oates JC, Gilkeson GS. The biology of nitric oxide and other reactive intermediates in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol 2006; 121: 24350.
  • 14
    Forstermann U, Sessa WC. Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function. Eur Heart J 2012; 33: 82937.
  • 15
    Kanwar JR, Kanwar RK, Burrow H, Baratchi S. Recent advances on the roles of NO in cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Curr Med Chem 2009; 16: 237394.
  • 16
    Chatterjee A, Black SM, Catravas JD. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and its pathophysiologic regulation. Vascul Pharmacol 2008; 49: 13440.
  • 17
    Zhou L, Zhu DY. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase: structure, subcellular localization, regulation, and clinical implications. Nitric Oxide 2009; 20: 22330.
  • 18
    Schmidt N, Pautz A, Art J, Rauschkolb P, Jung M, Erkel G, et al. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of iNOS expression in human chondrocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 2010; 79: 72232.
  • 19
    Pautz A, Art J, Hahn S, Nowag S, Voss C, Kleinert H. Regulation of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Nitric Oxide 2010; 23: 7593.
  • 20
    Wei XQ, Charles IG, Smith A, Ure J, Feng GJ, Huang FP, et al. Altered immune responses in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase. Nature 1995; 375: 40811.
  • 21
    Kobayashi Y. The regulatory role of nitric oxide in proinflammatory cytokine expression during the induction and resolution of inflammation. J Leukoc Biol 2010; 88: 115762.
  • 22
    Yang GY, Taboada S, Liao J. Induced nitric oxide synthase as a major player in the oncogenic transformation of inflamed tissue. Methods Mol Biol 2009; 512: 11956.
  • 23
    Gilkeson GS, Mudgett JS, Seldin MF, Ruiz P, Alexander AA, Misukonis MA, et al. Clinical and serologic manifestations of autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice lacking nitric oxide synthase type 2. J Exp Med 1997; 186: 36573.
  • 24
    Theofilopoulos AN, Dixon FJ. Murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus. Adv Immunol 1985; 37: 269391.
  • 25
    Shesely EG, Maeda N, Kim HS, Desai KM, Krege JH, Laubach VE, et al. Elevated blood pressures in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 1317681.
  • 26
    Kevil CG, Hicks MJ, He X, Zhang J, Ballantyne CM, Raman C, et al. Loss of LFA-1, but not Mac-1, protects MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice from autoimmune disease. Am J Pathol 2004; 165: 60916.
  • 27
    Sato W, Kosugi T, Zhang L, Roncal CA, Heinig M, Campbell-Thompson M, et al. The pivotal role of VEGF on glomerular macrophage infiltration in advanced diabetic nephropathy. Lab Invest 2008; 88: 94961.
  • 28
    Nakayama T, Sato W, Kosugi T, Zhang L, Campbell-Thompson M, Yoshimura A, et al. Endothelial injury due to eNOS deficiency accelerates the progression of chronic renal disease in the mouse. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009; 296: F31727.
  • 29
    Heeringa P, van Goor H, Itoh-Lindstrom Y, Maeda N, Falk RJ, Assmann KJ, et al. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. Am J Pathol 2000; 156: 87988.
  • 30
    He X, Schoeb TR, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Zinn KR, Kesterson RA, Zhang J, et al. Deficiency of P-selectin or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 leads to accelerated development of glomerulonephritis and increased expression of CC chemokine ligand 2 in lupus-prone mice. J Immunol 2006; 177: 874856.
  • 31
    Berden JH, Hang L, McConahey PJ, Dixon FJ. Analysis of vascular lesions in murine SLE. I. Association with serologic abnormalities. J Immunol 1983; 130: 1699705.
  • 32
    Hicks J, Bullard DC. Review of autoimmune (lupus-like) glomerulonephritis in murine models. Ultrastruct Pathol 2006; 30: 34559.
  • 33
    Bullard DC, King PD, Hicks MJ, Dupont B, Beaudet AL, Elkon KB. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 deficiency protects MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice from early lethality. J Immunol 1997; 159: 205867.
  • 34
    Alexander EL, Moyer C, Travlos GS, Roths JB, Murphy ED. Two histopathologic types of inflammatory vascular disease in MRL/Mp autoimmune mice: model for human vasculitis in connective tissue disease. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 114655.
  • 35
    Moyer CF, Strandberg JD, Reinisch CL. Systemic mononuclear-cell vasculitis in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice: a histologic and immunocytochemical analysis. Am J Pathol 1987; 127: 22942.
  • 36
    Bullard DC, Schoeb TR. Animal models of vasculitis. In: Ball GV, Bridges SL, editors. Vasculitis. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008. p. 8996.
  • 37
    Cooke GE, Doshi A, Binkley PF. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene: prospects for treatment of heart disease. Pharmacogenomics 2007; 8: 172334.
  • 38
    Schulz E, Jansen T, Wenzel P, Daiber A, Munzel T. Nitric oxide, tetrahydrobiopterin, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. Antioxid Redox Signal 2008; 10: 111526.
  • 39
    Singh VK, Mehrotra S, Narayan P, Pandey CM, Agarwal SS. Modulation of autoimmune diseases by nitric oxide. Immunol Res 2000; 22: 119.
  • 40
    Atochin DN, Huang PL. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase transgenic models of endothelial dysfunction. Pflugers Arch 2010; 460: 96574.
  • 41
    Hewicker M, Trautwein G. Sequential study of vasculitis in MRL mice. Lab Anim 1987; 21: 33541.
  • 42
    Dimitriu-Bona A, Matic M, Ding W, Yang CP, Fillit H. Cytotoxicity to endothelial cells by sera from aged MRL/lpr/lpr mice is associated with autoimmunity to cell surface heparan sulfate. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1995; 76: 23440.
  • 43
    Harper JM, Thiru S, Lockwood CM, Cooke A. Myeloperoxidase autoantibodies distinguish vasculitis mediated by anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies from immune complex disease in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice: a spontaneous model for human microscopic angiitis. Eur J Immunol 1998; 28: 221726.
  • 44
    Kubes P, Suzuki M, Granger DN. Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88: 46515.
  • 45
    Desai A, Miller MJ, Huang X, Warren JS. Nitric oxide modulates MCP-1 expression in endothelial cells: implications for the pathogenesis of pulmonary granulomatous vasculitis. Inflammation 2003; 27: 21323.
  • 46
    Grumbach IM, Chen W, Mertens SA, Harrison DG. A negative feedback mechanism involving nitric oxide and nuclear factor κ-B modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase transcription. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2005; 39: 595603.
  • 47
    Moroi M, Zhang L, Yasuda T, Virmani R, Gold HK, Fishman MC, et al. Interaction of genetic deficiency of endothelial nitric oxide, gender, and pregnancy in vascular response to injury in mice. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 122532.
  • 48
    Rudic RD, Shesely EG, Maeda N, Smithies O, Segal SS, Sessa WC. Direct evidence for the importance of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vascular remodeling. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 7316.
  • 49
    Oates JC, Ruiz P, Alexander A, Pippen AM, Gilkeson GS. Effect of late modulation of nitric oxide production on murine lupus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1997; 83: 8692.
  • 50
    Reilly CM, Farrelly LW, Viti D, Redmond ST, Hutchison F, Ruiz P, et al. Modulation of renal disease in MRL/lpr mice by pharmacologic inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Kidney Int 2002; 61: 83946.