SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Miller JA, Schmatz C, Schultz AB. Lumbar disc degeneration: correlation with age, sex, and spine level in 600 autopsy specimens. Spine 1988; 13: 1738.
  • 2
    Lebkowski WJ. Autopsy evaluation of the extent of degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral discs. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2002; 13: 18890. In Polish.
  • 3
    Takatalo J, Karppinen J, Niinimaki J, Taimela S, Nayha S, Jarvelin MR, et al. Prevalence of degenerative imaging findings in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging among young adults. Spine 2009; 34: 171621.
  • 4
    De Schepper EI, Damen J, van Meurs JB, Ginai AZ, Popham M, Hofman A, et al. The association between lumbar disc degeneration and low back pain: the influence of age, gender, and individual radiographic features. Spine 2010; 35: 5316.
  • 5
    Griffith JF, Wang YX, Antonio GE, Choi KC, Yu A, Ahuja AT, et al. Modified Pfirrmann grading system for lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine 2007; 32: E70812.
  • 6
    Wang YX, Griffith JF, Ma HT, Kwok AW, Leung JC, Yeung DK, et al. Relationship between gender, bone mineral density, and disc degeneration in the lumbar spine: a study in elderly subjects using an eight level MRI-based disc degeneration grading system. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 916.
  • 7
    Wang YX, Griffith JF. Effect of menopause on lumbar disc degeneration: potential etiology. Radiology 2010; 257: 31820.
  • 8
    Leung SS, Woo J, Ho S, Lam TH, Janus ED. Hong Kong adult dietary survey, 1995. Aust J Nutri Diet 1998; 55 Suppl 1: S11S13.
  • 9
    Washburn RA, Smith KW, Jette AM, Janney CA. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE): development and evaluation. J Clin Epidemiol 1993; 46: 15362.
  • 10
    Liu B, Woo J, Tang N, Ng K, Ip R, Yu A. Assessment of total energy expenditure in a Chinese population by a physical activity questionnaire: examination of validity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001; 52: 26982.
  • 11
    Mimura M, Panjabi MM, Oxland TR, Crisco JJ, Yamamoto I, Vasavada A. Disc degeneration affects the multidirectional flexibility of the lumbar spine. Spine 1994; 19: 137180.
  • 12
    Lane NE, Nevitt MC, Genant HK, Hochberg MC. Reliability of new indices of radiographic osteoarthritis of the hand and hip and lumbar disc degeneration. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 19118.
  • 13
    Kettler A, Wilke HJ. Review of existing grading systems for cervical or lumbar disc and facet joint degeneration. Eur Spine J 2006; 15: 70518.
  • 14
    Wang YX, Kuribayashi H, Wagberg M, Holmes AP, Tessier JJ, Waterton JC. Gradient echo MRI characterisation of development of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2006; 29: 60512.
  • 15
    Baron YM, Brincat MP, Galea R, Calleja N. Intervertebral disc height in treated and untreated overweight post-menopausal women. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 356670.
  • 16
    Gruber HE, Yamaguchi D, Ingram J, Leslie K, Huang W, Miller TA, et al. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-β in annulus cells of the human intervertebral disc and the mitogenic effect of 17-β-estradiol in vitro. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2002; 3: 4.
  • 17
    Kauppila LI, McAlindon T, Evans S, Wilson PW, Kiel D, Felson DT. Disc degeneration/back pain and calcification of the abdominal aorta: a 25-year follow-up study in Framingham. Spine 1997; 22: 16427.
  • 18
    Kurunlahti M, Kerttula L, Jauhiainen J, Karppinen J, Tervonen O. Correlation of diffusion in lumbar intervertebral disks with occlusion of lumbar arteries: a study in adult volunteers. Radiology 2001; 221: 77986.
  • 19
    Urban JP, Smith S, Fairbank JC. Nutrition of the intervertebral disc. Spine 2004; 29: 27009.
  • 20
    Griffith JF, Wang YX, Zhou H, Kwong WH, Wong WT, Sun YL, et al. Reduced bone perfusion in osteoporosis: likely causes in an ovariectomy rat model. Radiology 2010; 254: 73946.
  • 21
    Tostes RC, Nigro D, Fortes ZB, Carvalho MH. Effects of estrogen on the vascular system. Braz J Med Biol Res 2003; 36: 114358.
  • 22
    Wang YX, Griffith JF. Menopause causes vertebral endplate degeneration and decrease in nutrient diffusion to the intervertebral discs. Med Hypotheses 2011; 77: 1820.
  • 23
    Deng M, Griffith JF, Zhu XM, Poon WS, Ahuja AT, Wang YX. Effect of estrogen deficiency on contrast agent diffusion into lumbar intervertebral disc: dynamic contrast enhanced MRI study in a female rat ovariectomy model. Magn Reson Imaging 2012; 30: 6838.
  • 24
    Foss VL, Byers PD. Bone density, osteoarthrosis of the hip, and fracture of the upper end of the femur. Ann Rheum Dis 1972; 31: 25964.
  • 25
    Harada A, Okuizumi H, Miyagi N, Genda E. Correlation between bone mineral density and intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine 1998; 23: 85761.
  • 26
    Dequeker J, Aerssens J, Luyten FP. Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis: clinical and research evidence of inverse relationship. Aging Clin Exp Res 2003; 15: 42639.
  • 27
    Miyakoshi N, Itoi E, Murai H, Wakabayashi I, Ito H, Minato T. Inverse relation between osteoporosis and spondylosis in postmenopausal women as evaluated by bone mineral density and semiquantitative scoring of spinal degeneration. Spine 2003; 28: 4925.
  • 28
    Weintroub S, Papo J, Ashkenazi M, Tardiman R, Weissman SL, Salama R. Osteoarthritis of hip and fractures of the proximal end of the femur. Acta Orthop Scand 1982; 53: 2614.
  • 29
    Marcelli C, Favier F, Kotzki PO, Ferrazzi V, Picot MC, Simon L. The relationship between osteoarthritis of the hands, bone mineral density, and osteoporotic fractures in elderly women. Osteoporos Int 1995; 5: 3828.
  • 30
    Verstraeten A, Van Ermen H, Haghebaert G, Nijs J, Geusens P, Dequeker J. Osteoarthrosis retards the development of osteoporosis: observation of the coexistence of osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1991; 264: 16977.
  • 31
    Margulies JY, Payzer A, Nyska M, Neuwirth MG, Floman Y, Robin GC. The relationship between degenerative changes and osteoporosis in the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1996; 324: 14552.
  • 32
    Kwok AW, Griffith JF, Ma HT, Wang YX, Leung PC, Leung J, et al. Estimated volume of both vertebral body and disc decreases as BMD decreases though this effect is seen more in the vertebral body than the disc [abstract]. Bone 2008; 43: S66.
  • 33
    Wang YX, Kwok AW, Griffith JF, Leung JC, Ma HT, Ahuja AT, et al. Relationship between hip bone mineral density and lumbar disc degeneration: a study in elderly subjects using an 8-level MRI based disc degeneration grading system. J Magn Reson Imaging 2011; 33: 91620.
  • 34
    Muraki S, Yamamoto S, Ishibashi H, Horiuchi T, Hosoi T, Orimo H, et al. Impact of degenerative spinal diseases on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in elderly women. Osteoporos Int 2004; 15: 7248.