• 1
    United States Bone and Joint Initiative. Spine: low back and neck pain. In:The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. Prevalence, societal and economic cost. 2nd ed.Rosemont (IL):American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons;2011. p.2156.
  • 2
    Katz JN.Lumbar disc disorders and low-back pain: socioeconomic factors and consequences.J Bone Joint Surg Am2006;88 Suppl 2:214.
  • 3
    Manchikanti L, Pampati V, Singh V, Boswell MV, Smith HS, Hirsch JA.Explosive growth of facet joint interventions in the Medicare population in the United States: a comparative evaluation of 1997, 2002, and 2006 data.BMC Health Serv Res2010;10:84.
  • 4
    Manchikanti L, Pampati V, Boswell MV, Smith HS, Hirsch JA.Analysis of the growth of epidural injections and costs in the Medicare population: a comparative evaluation of 1997, 2002, and 2006 data.Pain Physician2010;13:199212.
  • 5
    Cohen SP, Bajwa ZH, Kraemer JJ, Dragovich A, Williams KA, Stream J, et al.Factors predicting success and failure for cervical facet radiofrequency denervation: a multi-center analysis.Reg Anesth Pain Med2007;32:495503.
  • 6
    Cohen SP, Stojanovic MP, Crooks M, Kim P, Schmidt RK, Shields CH, et al.Lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint radiofrequency denervation success as a function of pain relief during diagnostic medial branch blocks: a multicenter analysis.Spine J2008;8:498504.
  • 7
    Cohen SP, Hurley RW, Christo PJ, Winkley J, Mohiuddin MM, Stojanovic MP.Clinical predictors of success and failure for lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation.Clin J Pain2007;23:4552.
  • 8
    Stojanovic MP, Sethee J, Mohiuddin M, Cheng J, Barker A, Wang J, et al.MRI analysis of the lumbar spine: can it predict response to diagnostic and therapeutic facet procedures?Clin J Pain2010;26:1105.
  • 9
    Manchikanti L, Cash KA, Pampati V, Fellows B.Influence of psychological variables on the diagnosis of facet joint involvement in chronic spinal pain.Pain Physician2008;11:14560.
  • 10
    Schiff E, Eisenberg E.Can quantitative sensory testing predict the outcome of epidural steroid injections in sciatica? A preliminary study.Anesth Analg2003;97:82832.
  • 11
    Revel M, Poiraudeau S, Auleley GR, Payan C, Denke A, Nguyen M, et al.Capacity of the clinical picture to characterize low back pain relieved by facet joint anesthesia: proposed criteria to identify patients with painful facet joints.Spine1998;23:19726.
  • 12
    Revel ME, Listrat VM, Chevalier XJ, Dougados M, N'guyen MP, Vallee C, et al.Facet joint block for low back pain: identifying predictors of a good response.Arch Phys Med Rehabil1992;73:8248.
  • 13
    Wylde V, Hewlett S, Learmonth ID, Dieppe P.Persistent pain after joint replacement: prevalence, sensory qualities, and postoperative determinants.Pain2011;152:56672.
  • 14
    Woolf CJ.Central sensitization: implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain.Pain2011;152:S215.
  • 15
    Williams DA, Clauw DJ.Understanding fibromyalgia: lessons from the broader pain research community.J Pain2009;10:77791.
  • 16
    Clauw DJ, Schmidt M, Radulovic D, Singer A, Katz P, Bresette J.The relationship between fibromyalgia and interstitial cystitis.J Psychiatr Res1997;31:12531.
  • 17
    Sarzi-Puttini P, Atzeni F, Mease PJ.Chronic widespread pain: from peripheral to central evolution.Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol2011;25:1339.
  • 18
    El-Gabalawy H, Ryner L.Central nervous system abnormalities in fibromyalgia: assessment using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.J Rheumatol2008;35:12424.
  • 19
    Schmidt-Wilcke T, Clauw DJ.Pharmacotherapy in fibromyalgia (FM)—implications for the underlying pathophysiology.Pharmacol Ther2010;127:28394.
  • 20
    Amris K, Jespersen A, Bliddal H.Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds.Pain2010;151:6649.
  • 21
    Rehm SE, Koroschetz J, Gockel U, Brosz M, Freynhagen R, Tolle TR, et al.A cross-sectional survey of 3035 patients with fibromyalgia: subgroups of patients with typical comorbidities and sensory symptom profiles.Rheumatology (Oxford)2010;49:114652.
  • 22
    Fitzcharles MA, Yunus MB.The clinical concept of fibromyalgia as a changing paradigm in the past 20 years.Pain Res Treat2012;2012:184835.
  • 23
    Clauw DJ, Witter J.Pain and rheumatology: thinking outside the joint [editorial].Arthritis Rheum2009;60:3214.
  • 24
    Lee YC, Nassikas NJ, Clauw DJ.The role of the central nervous system in the generation and maintenance of chronic pain in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia.Arthritis Res Ther2011;13:211.
  • 25
    Clauw DJ, Williams D, Lauerman W, Dahlman M, Aslami A, Nachemson AL, et al.Pain sensitivity as a correlate of clinical status in individuals with chronic low back pain.Spine1999;24:203541.
  • 26
    Giesecke T, Gracely RH, Grant MA, Nachemson A, Petzke F, Williams DA, et al.Evidence of augmented central pain processing in idiopathic chronic low back pain.Arthritis Rheum2004;50:61323.
  • 27
    Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Hauser W, Katz RS, et al.Fibromyalgia criteria and severity scales for clinical and epidemiological studies: a modification of the ACR Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia.J Rheumatol2011;38:111322.
  • 28
    Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, FitzCharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Katz RS, Mease P, et al.The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity.Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)2010;62:60010.
  • 29
    Hauser W, Jung E, Erbsloh-Moller B, Gesmann M, Kuhn-Becker H, Petermann F, et al.Validation of the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire within a cross-sectional survey.PLoS One2012;7:e37504.
  • 30
    Hassett AL, Wasserman R, Goesling J, Rakovitis K, Shi B, Brummett CM.Longitudinal assessment of pain outcomes in the clinical setting: development of the “APOLO” Electronic Data Capture system.Reg Anesth Pain Med2012;37:398402.
  • 31
    Brummett CM, Hassett AL, Brummett KA, Clauw DJ, Williams DA.The Michigan Body Map and its use in assessing the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia [abstract].Arthritis Rheum2011;63 Suppl:S368.
  • 32
    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, et al.The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee.Arthritis Rheum1990;33:16072.
  • 33
    Vincent A, Lahr BD, Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Whipple MO, Oh TH, et al.Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project.Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)2013;65:78692.
  • 34
    Tan G, Jensen MP, Thornby JI, Shanti BF.Validation of the Brief Pain Inventory for chronic nonmalignant pain.J Pain2004;5:1337.
  • 35
    Freynhagen R, Baron R, Gockel U, Tolle TR.painDETECT: a new screening questionnaire to identify neuropathic components in patients with back pain.Curr Med Res Opin2006;22:191120.
  • 36
    Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB.The Oswestry Disability Index.Spine2000;25:294052.
  • 37
    Cella D, Riley W, Stone A, Rothrock N, Reeve B, Yount S, et al, on behalf of the PROMIS Cooperative Group.The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) developed and tested its first wave of adult self-reported health outcome item banks: 2005-2008.J Clin Epidemiol2010;63:117994.
  • 38
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP.The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Acta Psychiatr Scand1983;67:36170.
  • 39
    Keller S, Bann CM, Dodd SL, Schein J, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS.Validity of the Brief Pain Inventory for use in documenting the outcomes of patients with noncancer pain.Clin J Pain2004;20:30918.
  • 40
    George SZ, Wittmer VT, Fillingim RB, Robinson ME.Sex and pain-related psychological variables are associated with thermal pain sensitivity for patients with chronic low back pain.J Pain2007;8:210.
  • 41
    Puta C, Schulz B, Schoeler S, Magerl W, Gabriel B, Gabriel HH, et al.Enhanced sensitivity to punctate painful stimuli in female patients with chronic low back pain.BMC Neurol2012;12:98.
  • 42
    Kindler LL, Jones KD, Perrin N, Bennett RM.Risk factors predicting the development of widespread pain from chronic back or neck pain.J Pain2010;11:13208.
  • 43
    Harris RE, Sundgren PC, Craig AD, Kirshenbaum E, Sen A, Napadow V, et al.Elevated insular glutamate in fibromyalgia is associated with experimental pain.Arthritis Rheum2009;60:314652.
  • 44
    Harris RE, Clauw DJ, Scott DJ, McLean SA, Gracely RH, Zubieta JK.Decreased central μ-opioid receptor availability in fibromyalgia.J Neurosci2007;27:100006.
  • 45
    Mease PJ, Dundon K, Sarzi-Puttini P.Pharmacotherapy of fibromyalgia.Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol2011;25:28597.
  • 46
    Pinto RZ, Maher CG, Ferreira ML, Hancock M, Oliveira VC, McLachlan AJ, et al.Epidural corticosteroid injections in the management of sciatica: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Ann Intern Med2012;157:86577.
  • 47
    Iversen T, Solberg TK, Romner B, Wilsgaard T, Twisk J, Anke A, et al.Effect of caudal epidural steroid or saline injection in chronic lumbar radiculopathy: multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial.BMJ2011;343:d5278.
  • 48
    Sayegh FE, Kenanidis EI, Papavasiliou KA, Potoupnis ME, Kirkos JM, Kapetanos GA.Efficacy of steroid and nonsteroid caudal epidural injections for low back pain and sciatica: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial.Spine2009;34:14417.
  • 49
    Wilkinson IM, Cohen SP.Epidural steroid injections.Curr Pain Headache Rep2012;16:509.
  • 50
    Dreyfuss P, Halbrook B, Pauza K, Joshi A, McLarty J, Bogduk N.Efficacy and validity of radiofrequency neurotomy for chronic lumbar zygapophysial joint pain.Spine2000;25:12707.
  • 51
    Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, McDonald GJ, Bogduk N.Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal-joint pain.N Engl J Med1996;335:17216.
  • 52
    Skljarevski V, Desaiah D, Liu-Seifert H, Zhang Q, Chappell AS, Detke MJ, et al.Efficacy and safety of duloxetine in patients with chronic low back pain.Spine (Phila Pa 1976)2010;35:E57885.
  • 53
    Glombiewski JA, Sawyer AT, Gutermann J, Koenig K, Rief W, Hofmann SG.Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: a meta-analysis.Pain2010;151:28095.