To better define the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of autoimmune-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (AAHS) in adults.


Adults with AAHS (defined as pathologic evidence of hemophagocytosis without any obvious cause other than an autoimmune disease) were identified through a review of the literature.


Among 116 patients identified, underlying diseases included systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 52.3%, adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in 26.7%, and dermatomyositis in 6.9%. Fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found in 86.8%, 41.0%, 41.8%, and 45.5% of patients, respectively. Cytopenia, liver dysfunction, and hyperferritinemia developed frequently, and coagulopathy was seen in 50.6% of patients. Normal or low C-reactive protein levels were characteristic of patients with underlying SLE. The most commonly used therapy was corticosteroids, which were initially administered in 95.7% of patients, with 57.7% responding. Patients with corticosteroid-refractory disease were usually treated with cyclosporine, intravenous cyclophosphamide (IV CYC), or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), with IV CYC being highly effective. Treatment with biologic agents resulted in favorable effects in the majority of patients. The mortality rate was 12.9%. Male sex (odds ratio [OR] 6.47, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.06–30.39, P < 0.01), dermatomyositis (OR 5.57, 95% CI 1.08–28.65, P < 0.05), and anemia (hemoglobin <8 gm/dl; OR 3.74, 95% CI 1.02–13.8, P < 0.05) were identified as factors associated with mortality.


AAHS is potentially fatal. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of initial treatment. For corticosteroid-refractory disease, IV CYC may be beneficial as compared with cyclosporine or IVIG. Treatment that proceeds directly from corticosteroids to biologic agents is promising.