SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Abe M, Takahashi M, Horiuchi K, Nagano A. 2003. The changes in crosslink contents in tissues after formalin fixation. Anal Biochem 318:118123.
  • Akbar-Khanzadeh F, Mlynek JS. 1997. Changes in respiratory function after one and three hours of exposure to formaldehyde in non-smoking students. Occup Environ Med 54:296300.
  • Akbar-Khanzadeh F, Vaquerano MU, Akbar-Khanzadeh M, Bisesi MS. 1994. Formaldehyde exposure, acute pulmonary response and exposure control options in a gross anatomy laboratory. Am J Ind Med 26:6175.
  • Alberty J, Filler TJ, Schmäl F, Peuker ET. 2002. Thiel method fixed cadaver ears. A new procedure for graduate and continuing education in middle ear surgery. HNO 50:739742.
  • Anderhuber F. 2012. Emeritus O. Univ. Prof. Dr. Med. Univ. Walter Thiel (1919-2012). Clin Anat 25:525526.
  • Anderssohn B. 2011. Einfluss von Konservierung auf die biomechanische Kompetenz des Knochens im Mausmodell. Universität Hamburg: Hamburg, Germany. Doctor in Dental Medicine Dissertation. 58 p.
  • Armstrong EJ, Erskine KL. 2011. Water-Related Death Investigation: Practical Methods and Forensic Applications. 1st Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 388 p.
  • Aziz MA, McKenzie JC, Wilson JS, Cowie RJ, Ayeni SA, Dunn BK. 2002. The human cadaver in the age of biomedical informatics. Anat Rec 269:2032.
  • Benkhadra M, Bouchot A, Gérard J, Genelot D, Trouilloud P, Martin L, Girard C, Danino A, Anderhuber F, Feigl G. 2011a. Flexibility of Thiel's embalmed cadavers: The explanation is probably in the muscles. Surg Radiol Anat 33:365368.
  • Benkhadra M, Faust A, Ladoire S, Trost O, Trouilloud P, Girard C, Anderhuber F, Feigl G. 2009. Comparison of fresh and Thiel's embalmed cadavers according to the suitability for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia of the cervical region. Surg Radiol Anat 31:531535.
  • Benkhadra M, Gérard J, Genelot D, Trouilloud P, Girard C, Anderhuber F, Feigl G. 2011b. Is Thiel's embalming method widely known?A world survey about its use. Surg Radiol Anat 33:359363.
  • Blum F. 1893. Der Formaldehyd als Härtungsmittel. Z Wiss Mikrosk 10:314315.
  • Blum F. 1896. Über Wesen und Wert der Formolhärtung. Ann Anat 11:718727.
  • Böckers A, Jerg-Bretzke L, Lamp C, Brinkmann A, Traue H, Bockers T. 2010. The gross anatomy course: An analysis of its importance. Anat Sci Educ 3:311.
  • Bradbury SA, Hoshino K. 1978. An improved embalming procedure for long-lasting preservation of the cadaver for anatomical study. Acta Anat (Basel) 101:97103.
  • Chapin RE, Ku WW. 1994. The reproductive toxicity of boric acid. Envir Health Perspect 102:8791.
  • Chia SE, Ong CN, Foo SC, Lee HP. 1992. Medical students' exposure to formaldehyde in a gross anatomy dissection laboratory. J Am Coll Health 41:115119.
  • Coggon D, Pannett B, Acheson ED. 1984. Use of job-exposure matrix in an occupational analysis of lung and bladder cancers on the basis of death certificates. J Natl Cancer Inst 72:6165.
  • Coleman R, Kogan I. 1998. An improved low-formaldehyde embalming fluid to preserve cadavers for anatomy teaching. J Anat 192:443446.
  • Currey JD, Brear K, Zioupos P, Reilly GC. 1995. Effect of formaldehyde fixation on some mechanical properties of bovine bone. Biomaterials 16:12671271.
  • Drake RL. 2007. A unique, innovative, and clinically oriented approach to anatomy education. Acad Med 82:475478.
  • Drake RL. 2014. A retrospective and prospective look at medical education in the United States: Trends shaping anatomical sciences education. J Anat 224:256260.
  • Dreyfuss JH. 2010. Occupational formaldehyde exposure linked to increased risk of myeloid leukemia and death. CA Cancer J Clin 60:135136.
  • Eisma R, Lamb C, Soames RW. 2013. From formalin to Thiel embalming: What changes? One anatomy department's experiences. Clin Anat 26:564571.
  • Fasel JH, Morel P, Gailloud P. 2005. A survival strategy for anatomy. Lancet 365:754.
  • Fessel G, Frey K, Schweizer A, Calcagni M, Ullrich O, Snedeker JG. 2011. Suitability of Thiel embalmed tendons for biomechanical investigation. Ann Anat 193:237241.
  • Frølich KW, Andersen LM, Knutsen A, Flood PR. 1984. Phenoxyethanol as a nontoxic substitute for formaldehyde in long-term preservation of human anatomical specimens for dissection and demonstration purposes. Anat Rec 208:271278.
  • Goldstein BD. 2011. Hematological and toxicological evaluation of formaldehyde as a potential cause of human leukemia. Hum Exp Toxicol 30:725735.
  • Grabherr S, Hess A, Karolczak M, Thali MJ, Friess SD, Kalender WA, Dirnhofer R, Djonov V. 2008. Angiofil-mediated visualization of the vascular system by microcomputed tomography: A feasibility study. Microsc Res Tech 71:551556.
  • Groscurth P, Eggli P, Kapfhammer J, Rager G, Hornung JP, Fasel JD. 2001. Gross anatomy in the surgical curriculum in Switzerland: Improved cadaver preservation, anatomical models, and course development. Anat Rec 265:254256.
  • Hammer N, Löffler S, Feja C, Bechmann I, Steinke H. 2011. Substitution of formaldehyde in cross anatomy is possible. J Natl Cancer Inst 103:610611.
  • Hammer N, Löffler S, Feja C, Sandrock M, Schmidt W, Bechmann I, Steinke H. 2012. Ethanol-glycerin fixation with thymol conservation: A potential alternative to formaldehyde and phenol embalming. Anat Sci Educ 5:225233.
  • Hammer N, Voigt C, Werner M, Hoffmann F, Bente K, Kunze H, Scholz R, Steinke H. 2014. Ethanol and formaldehyde fixation irreversibly alter bones' organic matrix. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 29:252258.
  • Hauptmann M, Stewart PA, Lubin JH, Beane Freeman LE, Hornung RW, Herrick RF, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr, Blair A, Hayes RB. 2009. Mortality from lymphohematopoietic malignancies and brain cancer among embalmers exposed to formaldehyde. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:16961708.
  • Höckel M, Horn LC, Fritsch H. 2005. Association between the mesenchymal compartment of uterovaginal organogenesis and local tumour spread in stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma: A prospective study. Lancet Oncol 6:751756.
  • Höckel M, Horn LC, Manthey N, Braumann UD, Wolf U, Teichmann G, Frauenschläger K, Dornhöfer N, Einenkel J. 2009. Resection of the embryologically defined uterovaginal (Müllerian) compartment and pelvic control in patients with cervical cancer: A prospective analysis. Lancet Oncol 10:683692.
  • Hölzle F, Franz EP, Lehmbrock J, Weihe S, Teistra C, Deppe H, Wolff KD. 2012. Thiel embalming technique: A valuable method for teaching oral surgery and implantology. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 14:121126.
  • Janczyk P, Weigner J, Luebke-Becker A, Kaessmeyer S, Plendl J. 2011a. Nitrite pickling salt as an alternative to formaldehyde for embalming in veterinary anatomy--A study based on histo- and microbiological analyses. Ann Anat 193:7175.
  • Janczyk P, Weigner J, Luebke-Becker A, Richardson KC, Plendl J. 2011b. A pilot study on ethanol-polyethylene glycol-formalin fixation of farm animal cadavers. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 124:225227.
  • Jansen S, Cowie M, Linehan J, Hamdorf JM. 2014. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training. ANZ J Surg 84:877880.
  • Jaung R, Cook P, Blyth P. 2011. A comparison of embalming fluids for use in surgical workshops. Clin Anat 24:155161.
  • Joslin S. 2008. Perceptions of anatomy education--A student's view. Anat Sci Educ 1:133134.
  • Keil CB, Akbar-Khanzadeh F, Konecny KA. 2001. Characterizing formaldehyde emission rates in a gross anatomy laboratory. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 16:967972.
  • Korf HW, Wicht H, Snipes RL, Timmermans JP, Paulsen F, Rune G, Baumgart-Vogt E. 2008. The dissection course - necessary and indispensable for teaching anatomy to medical students. Ann Anat 190:1622.
  • Kriebel D, Myers D, Cheng M, Woskie S, Cocanour B. 2001. Short-term effects of formaldehyde on peak expiratory flow and irritant symptoms. Arch Environ Health 56:1118.
  • Kunz G, Wilcke G. 1991. Untersuchungen zur Konservierung biologischen Materials unter dem Aspekt der Formaldehydreduzierung. Präparator 38:6374.
  • Kurose T, Kodera H, Aoyama H, Kawamata S. 2004. Formaldehyde concentration in the air and in cadavers at the gross anatomy laboratory in Hiroshima University. Hiroshima J Med Sci 53:3337.
  • Lakchayapakorn K, Watchalayarn P. 2010. Formaldehyde exposure of medical students and instructors and clinical symptoms during gross anatomy laboratory in Thammasat University. J Med Assoc Thai 93:S92S98.
  • Linde F, Sørensen HC. 1993. The effect of different storage methods on the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. J Biomech 26:12491252.
  • Lippert H. 2012. Sind Präparierübungen an der Leiche noch zeitgemäß? Dtsch Arztebl 109:17581759.
  • Löffler S, Feja C, Spanel-Borowski K. 2009. Anatomie außerhalb der studentischen Ausbildung. Sächsisches Ärzteblatt 6:265266.
  • Löffler S, Feja C, Schröder T. 2013. What do students perceive as fair oral examinations in the field of anatomy? J Contemp Med Edu 1:119125
  • Lunn R, Jahnke G, Spencer D, Garner S, Atwood S, Carter G, Ewens A, Greenwood D, Ratcliffe J, Desrosiers T, et al. 2010. Final report on carcinogens background document for formaldehyde. Rep Carcinog Backgr Doc 2010:i–512.
  • Macksey LF. 2012. Surgical Procedures and Anesthetic Implications: A Handbook for Nurse Anesthesia Practice. 1st Ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 944 p.
  • Messmer C, Kellogg RT, Zhang Y, Baiak A, Leiweke C, Marcus JR, Levin LS, Zenn MR, Erdmann D. 2010. A technique to perfuse cadavers that extends the useful life of fresh tissues: The Duke experience. Anat Sci Educ 3:191194.
  • Munirama S, Satapathy AR, Schwab A, Eisma R, Corner GA, Cochran S, Soames RW, McLeod GA. 2012. Translation of sonoelastography from Thiel cadaver to patients for peripheral nerve blocks. Anaesthesia 67:721728.
  • Murray AR, Kisin E, Castranova V, Kommineni C, Gunther MR, Shvedova AA. 2007. Phenol-induced in vivo oxidative stress in skin: Evidence for enhanced free radical generation, thiol oxidation, and antioxidant depletion. Chem Res Toxicol 20:17691777.
  • Neuhuber W. 2012. Medizinstudium: Offene Türen eingerannt. Dtsch Arztebl 109:A-2254.
  • Ochs M, Mühlfeld C, Schmiedl A. 2012. Präparierkurs: Grundlage ärztlichen Handelns Dtsch Arztebl 109:A2146A2147.
  • Ohman C, Dall'Ara E, Baleani M, Van Sint JS, Viceconti M. 2008. The effects of embalming using a 4% formalin solution on the compressive mechanical properties of human cortical bone. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 23:12941298.
  • Ohmichi K, Komiyama M, Matsuno Y, Takanashi Y, Miyamoto H, Kadota T, Maekawa M, Toyama Y, Tatsugi Y, Kohno T, et al. 2006. Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory—Personal exposure level is higher than indoor concentration. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13:120124.
  • Pattanshetti VM, Pattanshetti SV. 2010. Laparoscopic surgery on cadavers: A novel teaching tool for surgical residents. ANZ J Surg 80:676678.
  • Perkins JL, Kimbrough JD. 1985. Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory. J Occup Med 27:813815.
  • Piechocki R. 1986. Makroskopische Präparationstechnik: Leitfaden für das Sammeln, Präparieren und Konservieren. 2nd Ed. Jena, Germany: VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag. 299 p.
  • Prasad RB, Tang B, Eisma R, Soames RW, Wen H, Nabi G. 2012. A qualitative assessment of human cadavers embalmed by Thiel's method used in laparoscopic training for renal resection. Anat Sci Educ 5:182186.
  • Rack E. 1951. Die Paraffinmethode für anatomische Sammlungspräparate. Ann Anat 98:131137.
  • Romeis B. 1989. Mikroskopische Technik. 15th Ed. München, Germany: Urban & Schwarzenberg. 695 p.
  • Roth. 2012. Boric acid safety data sheet according to regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Version number 1, 2012. CARL Roth AG, Karlsruhe, Germany. URL: http://www.carlroth.com/media/_en-fr/sdpdf/3061e.PDF [accessed 11 March 2014].
  • Ryan TJ, Burroughs GE, Taylor K, Kovein RJ. 2003. Video exposure assessments demonstrate excessive laboratory formaldehyde exposures. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:450457.
  • Scribbans TD. 2011. The Flexible Cadaver Knee Model as a Training Model for the Development of Basic Arthroscopic Skills. Master's of Science Dissertation. Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Queen's University. 85 p.
  • Sedlin ED. 1965. A rheologic model for cortical bone. A study of the physical properties of human femoral samples. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 83:S1S77.
  • Sharma M, Macafee D, Pranesh N, Horgan AF. 2012. Construct validity of fresh frozen human cadaver as a training model in minimal access surgery. JSLS 16:345352.
  • Shiraishi N. 2006. Levels of formaldehyde, phenol and ethanol in dissection room air and measures for reduction. Jpn J Occup Med Trauma 54:110.
  • Spranger H. 1926. Die Verwendung von Isopropylalkohol statt Äthylalkohol in der pathologisch-anatomischen Technik. Zbl Path Jena 38:6567.
  • Steinke H, Lingslebe U, Böhme J, Slowik V, Shim V, Hädrich C, Hammer N. 2012. Deformation behavior of the iliotibial tract under different states of fixation. Med Eng Phys 34:12211227.
  • Sugand K, Abrahams P, Khurana A. 2010. The anatomy of anatomy: A review for its modernization. Anat Sci Educ 3:8393.
  • Takayanagi M, Sakai M, Ishikawa Y, Murakami K, Kimura A, Kakuta S, Sato F. 2007. Formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone of medical students during gross anatomy laboratory in Toho University. Kaibogaku Zasshi 82:4551.
  • Tanaka K, Nishiyama K, Yaginuma H, Sasaki A, Maeda T, Kaneko SY, Onami T, Tanaka M. 2003. Formaldehyde exposure levels and exposure control measures during an anatomy dissecting course. Kaibogaku Zasshi 78:4351.
  • Thiel W. 1992. The preservation of the whole corpse with natural color. Ann Anat 174:185195.
  • Thiel W. 2002. Supplement to the conservation of an entire cadaver according to W. Thiel. Ann Anat 184:267269.
  • Unger S, Blauth M, Schmoelz W. 2010. Effects of three different preservation methods on the mechanical properties of human and bovine cortical bone. Bone 47:10481053.
  • van Gemert LJ. 2003. Odour Thresholds: Compilations of Odour Threshold Values in Air, Water and Other Media. 2003 Ed. Zeist, The Netherlands: Oliemans Punter & Partners BV. 468 p.
  • van Haaren EH, van der Zwaard BC, van der Veen AJ, Heyligers IC, Wuisman PI, Smit TH. 2008. Effect of long-term preservation on the mechanical properties of cortical bone in goats. Acta Orthop 79:708716.
  • Vimercati L, Carrus A, dell'Erba A, Assennato G. 2007. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in autopsy room and in pathologic anatomy laboratories. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 29:266268.
  • Vohra MS. 2011. Personal formaldehyde exposure level in the gross anatomy dissecting room at College of Medicine King Saud University Riyadh. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 24:108113.
  • Wacker A, Dahl P, Scheinert D, Feja C, Löffler S. 2011. Arterielle Gefäßvariationen am Unterschenkel und Fuß. Gefäßchirurgie 16:590594.
  • Weigner J. 2011. Nitritpökelsatz-Ethanol-Polyethylenglycol 400-Lösung zur Fixierung und Konservierung von Organen und Tierkörpern für Lehre und Forschung. Präparator 57:3453.
  • Werner M, Chott A, Fabiano A, Battifora H. 2000. Effect of formalin tissue fixation and processing on immunohistochemistry. Am J Surg Pathol 24:10161019.
  • Whitehead MC, Savoia MC. 2008. Evaluation of methods to reduce formaldehyde levels of cadavers in the dissection laboratory. Clin Anat 21:7581.
  • Wineski LE, English AW. 1989. Phenoxyethanol as a nontoxic preservative in the dissection laboratory. Acta Anat (Basel) 136:155158.
  • Wolff KD, Kesting M, Mücke T, Rau A, Hölzle F. 2008. Thiel embalming technique: A valuable method for microvascular exercise and teaching of flap raising. Microsurgery 28:273278.
  • Wolkoff P, Nielsen GD. 2010. Non-cancer effects of formaldehyde and relevance for setting an indoor air guideline. Environ Int 36:788799.