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Paradigms, citations, and maps of science: A personal history



Can maps of science tell us anything about paradigms? The author reviews his earlier work on this question, including Kuhn's reaction to it. Kuhn's view of the role of bibliometrics differs substantially from the kinds of reinterpretations of paradigms that information scientists are currently advocating. But these reinterpretations are necessary if his theory will ever be empirically tested, and further progress is to be made in understanding the growth of scientific knowledge. A new Web tool is discussed that highlights rapidly changing specialties that may lead to new ways of monitoring revolutionary change in real time. It is suggested that revolutionary and normal science be seen as extremes on a continuum of rates of change rather than, as Kuhn originally asserted, as an all or none proposition.