In a highly competitive environment, high-tech firms utilize capital-intensive facilities, technology-intensive products, and computer applications for gaining competitive advantages. It makes employees acquire more knowledge to perform more complex tasks. This has resulted in an increasing demand for organizations to implement knowledge management systems (KMS) for employees to steer organizational learning in the new era of knowledge-based economy. However, prior empirical examinations on factors influencing KMS success are not sufficient, particularly in the high-tech context. This study formulates and empirically tests a theoretical model to explain these factors and how they affect KMS success. Results from a sample of 141 employees selected from four high-tech semiconductor manufacturing firms provide us a more comprehensive understanding about how benefits, self-produced, and costs factors (i.e., reward, computer self-efficacy, and perceived power security) affect KMS success. It can be seen that reward and perceived power security have both direct and indirect effects on user satisfaction and intention to use KMS through perceived usefulness and ease of use. Moreover, computer self-efficacy influences user satisfaction and intention to use KMS through perceived usefulness and ease of use. Besides providing directions for development and testing of knowledge management theories, these findings will be valuable to practitioners.