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Inhibition of Lactoperoxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation by Imidazole-Based Thiones and Selones: A Mechanistic Study

Authors

  • Dr. Gouriprasanna Roy,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
    2. Department of Chemistry and Center for Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Dadri 203207, Uttar Pradesh (India)
    • Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

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  • P. N. Jayaram,

    1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
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  • Prof. Dr. Govindasamy Mugesh

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
    • Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

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Abstract

Herein, we describe the synthesis and biomimetic activity of a series of N,N-disubstituted thiones and selones that contain an imidazole pharmacophore. The N,N-disubstituted thiones do not show any inhibitory activity towards LPO-catalyzed oxidation reactions, but their corresponding N,N-disubstituted selones exhibit inhibitory activity towards LPO-catalyzed oxidation reactions. Substituents on the N atom of the imidazole ring appear to have a significant effect on the inhibition of LPO-catalyzed oxidation and iodination reactions. Selones , , and , which contain methyl, ethyl, and benzyl substituents, exhibit similar inhibition activities towards LPO-catalyzed oxidation reactions with IC50 values of 24.4, 22.5, and 22.5 μM, respectively. However, their activities are almost three-fold lower than that of the commonly used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI). In contrast, selone , which contains a N[BOND]CH2CH2OH substituent, exhibits high inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 7.2 μM, which is similar to that of MMI. The inhibitory activity of these selones towards LPO-catalyzed oxidation/iodination reactions is due to their ability to decrease the concentrations of the co-substrates (H2O2 and I2), either by catalytically reducing H2O2 (anti-oxidant activity) or by forming stable charge-transfer complexes with oxidized iodide species. The inhibition of LPO-catalyzed oxidation/iodination reactions by N,N-disubstituted selones can be reversed by increasing the concentration of H2O2. Interestingly, all of the N,N-disubstituted selones exhibit high anti-oxidant activities and their glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like activity is 4–12-fold higher than that of the well-known GPx-mimic ebselen. These experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the selones exist as zwitterions, in which the imidazole ring contains a positive charge and the selenium atom carries a large negative charge. Therefore, the selenium moieties of these selones possess highly nucleophilic character. The 77Se NMR chemical shifts for the selones show large upfield shift, thus confirming the zwitterionic structure in solution.

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