Biointerfaces with the controlled adhesion of bacteria are highly important, owing to their wide applications, which range from decreasing the probability of infection to promoting higher efficiency and sensitivity in biocatalysts and biosensors. In this Focus Review, we summarize the recent progress in chemically and physically designed biointerfaces with controlled bacterial adhesion. On one hand, several smart-responsive biointerfaces that can be switched between bacteria-adhesive states and bacteria-resistant states by applying an external stimulus have been rationally designed and developed for adhering and detaching bacteria, whilst, on the other hand, the adhesive behavior of bacteria can be controlled by regulating the topography of the biointerface. In addition, new technologies (i.e., biosensors) and materials (i.e., graphene) provide promising approaches for efficiently controlling the adhesion of bacteria for practical applications.
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