• galaxies: individual (SMC, LMC);
  • stars: AGB and post-AGB;
  • stars: mass loss


Following the red giant branch phase and the subsequent core He-burning phase, the low- to intermediate-mass stars (0.8 < M /M < 8) begin to ascend the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Pulsations levitate material from the stellar surface and provide density enhancements and shocks, which can encourage dust formation and re-processing. The dust composition depends on the atmospheric chemistry (abundance of carbon relative to oxygen), which is altered by dredging up newly formed carbon to the surface of the star. I will briefly review the current status of models that include AGB mass loss and relate them to recent observations of AGB stars from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) Spitzer surveys of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, including measures of the total dust input to the interstellar medium from AGB stars. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)