On the surface structure of sunspots



A precise knowledge of the surface structure of sunspots is essential to construct adequate input models for helioseismic inversion tools. We summarize our recent findings about the velocity and magnetic field in and around sunspots using HINODE observation. To this end we quantize the horizontal and vertical component of the penumbral velocity field at different levels of precision and study the moat flow around sunspot. Furthermore, we find that a significant amount of the penumbral magnetic fields return below the surface within the penumbra. Finally, we explain why the related opposite polarity signals remain hidden in magnetograms constructed from measurements with limited spectral resolution (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)