• rationing and pricing;
  • cordon;
  • park-and-ride;
  • modal choice;
  • Pareto-improving


This paper presents a simple spatial equilibrium model for a linear monocentric city to investigate the effects of rationing and pricing on morning commuters' travel cost and modal choice behavior in each location. Under rationing and pricing, every day in the morning peak hour, each commuter is classified as either “free” or “rationed”. “Free” commuters are allowed to use the highway without paying the toll, whereas “rationed” commuters can avoid the toll only if they travel by transit. Each day, a fraction of commuters are rationed in their free use of the highway, and the rationing fractions are determined systematically so that everyone is equally rationed in a given period. It is found that Pareto-improving rationing and pricing scheme might be obtained as a combination of the rationing degree and the toll associated with rationing. Extension to the rationing and pricing scheme with cordon and park-and-ride service has been made. Cordon and park-and-ride might help in improving the efficiency of rationing and pricing strategy although remains its Pareto-improving property. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.