SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abramson, R.K., Wright, H.H., Carpenter, R., Brennan, W., Lumpuy, O., Cole, E., et al. (1989). Elevated blood serotonin in autistic probands and their first-degree relatives. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 19, 397407.
  • Adrien, J.L., Roux, S., Couturier, G., Malvy, J., Guerin, P., Debuly, S., et al. (2001). Towards a new functional assessment of autistic dysfunction in children with developmental disorders: The Behaviour Function Inventory. Autism, 5, 249264.
  • Alarcon, M., Yonan, A.L., Gilliam, T.C., Cantor, R.M., & Geschwind, D.H. (2005). Quantitative genome scan and ordered-subsets analysis of autism endophenotypes support language QTLs. Molecular Psychiatry, 10, 747757.
  • Allik, H., Larsson, J.O., & Smedje, H. (2006). Sleep patterns of school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 36, 585595.
  • Anderson, G.M., & Hoshino, Y. (2005). Neurochemical studies of autism. In: Volkmar, F.R., Klin, A., Paul, R., & Cohen, D.J., editors. Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, p 453472.
  • Anderson, G.M., Jacobs-Stannard, A., Chawarska, K., Volkmar, F.R., & Kliman, H.J. (2007). Placental trophoblast inclusions in autism spectrum disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 487491.
  • Anonymous. (2007). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway's_Game_of_Life.
  • Arthur, W.B. (1990). Positive feedbacks in the economy. Scientific American Feb., p 9299.
  • Bailey, A., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., et al. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25, 6377.
  • Bailey, A., Palferman, S., Heavey, L., & Le Couteur, A. (1998). Autism: The phenotype in relatives. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 28, 369392.
  • Bailey, A., & Parr, J. (2003). Implications of the broader phenotype for concepts of autism. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 251, 2635; discussion 36–47, 109–111, 281–297.
  • Barrett, L.F., & Lindquist, K.A. (2008). The emotion enigma. Nature Neuroscience, in press.
  • Beglinger, L.J., & Smith, T.H. (2001). A review of subtyping in autism and proposed dimensional classification model. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31, 411422.
  • Belmonte, M.K., & Bourgeron, T. (2006). Fragile X syndrome and autism at the intersection of genetic and neural networks. Nature Neuroscience, 9, 12211225.
  • Bender, W., Albus, M., Moller, H.J., & Tretter, F. (2006). Towards systemic theories in biological psychiatry. Pharmacopsychiatry, 39, (Suppl. 1), S4S9.
  • Blitz, D. (1992). Emergent evolution: Qualitative novelty and the levels of reality. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
  • Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2001). [Factor structure of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R): A study of dimensional versus categorical classification of autistic disorders]. Zeitschrift fur Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 29, 221229.
  • Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 877900.
  • Bolton, P.F., Pickles, A., Murphy, M., & Rutter, M. (1998). Autism, affective and other psychiatric disorders: Patterns of familial aggregation. Psychological Medicine, 28, 385395.
  • Bunge, M. (2003). Emergence and convergence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Buxbaum, J.D., Silverman, J., Keddache, M., Smith, C.J., Hollander, E., Ramoz, N., et al. (2004). Linkage analysis for autism in a subset families with obsessive-compulsive behaviors: Evidence for an autism susceptibility gene on chromosome 1 and further support for susceptibility genes on chromosome 6 and 19. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 144150.
  • Cederlund, M., & Gillberg, C. (2004). One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: a clinical study of background and associated factors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 46, 652660.
  • Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Baird, G., Drew, A., & Cox, A. (2003). Predicting language outcome in infants with autism and pervasive developmental disorder. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 38, 265285.
  • Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J.A., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 46, 500513.
  • Constantino, J.N., & Todd, R.D. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 524530.
  • Cook, E.H., Jr. (2001). Genetics of autism. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 10, 333350.
  • Cook, E.H., Jr, Arora, R.C., Anderson, G.M., Berry-Kravis, E.M., Yan, S.Y., Yeoh, H.C., et al. (1993). Platelet serotonin studies in hyperserotonemic relatives of children with autistic disorder. Life Sciences, 52, 20052015.
  • Coon, H. (2006). Current perspectives on the genetic analysis of autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics, 142, 2432.
  • Coon, H., Dunn, D., Lainhart, J., Miller, J., Hamil, C., Battaglia, A., et al. (2005). Possible association between autism and variants in the brain-expressed tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH2). American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 135, 4246.
  • Corning, P.A. (2002). The re-emergence of “emergence”: A venerable concept in search of a theory. Complexity, 7, 1830.
  • Courchesne, E., Carper, R., & Akshoomoff, N. (2003). Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. JAMA, 290, 337344.
  • Danielsson, S., Gillberg, I.C., Billstedt, E., Gillberg, C., & Olsson, I. (2005). Epilepsy in young adults with autism: A prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals diagnosed in childhood. Epilepsia, 46, 918923.
  • Dawson, G., Webb, S., Schellenberg, G.D., Dager, S., Friedman, S., Aylward, E., et al. (2002). Defining the broader phenotype of autism: Genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives. Development & Psychopathology, 14, 581611.
  • Dementieva, Y.A., Vance, D.D., Donnelly, S.L., Elston, L.A., Wolpert, C.M., Ravan, S.A., et al. (2005). Accelerated head growth in early development of individuals with autism. Pediatric Neurology, 32, 102108.
  • Dissanayake, C., Bui, Q.M., Huggins, R., & Loesch, D.Z. (2006). Growth in stature and head circumference in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder during the first 3 years of life. Development & Psychopathology, 18, 381393.
  • Duvall, J.A., Lu, A., Cantor, R.M., Todd, R.D., Constantino, J.N., & Geschwind, D.H. (2007). A quantitative trait locus analysis of social responsiveness in multiplex autism families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 656662.
  • Fidler, D.J. (2006). The emergence of a syndrome-specific personality profile in young children with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 10, 5360.
  • Fisher, S.E. (2006). Tangled webs: Tracing the connections between genes and cognition. Cognition, 101, 270297.
  • Folstein, S.E., & Rosen-Sheidley, B. (2001). Genetics of autism: Complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder. Nature Reviews Genetics, 2, 943955.
  • Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Genetic influences and infantile autism. Nature, 265, 726728.
  • Folstein, S.E., Santangelo, S.L., Gilman, S.E., Piven, J., Landa, R., Lainhart, J., et al. (1999). Predictors of Cognitive test patterns in autism families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 11171128.
  • Fombonne, E., Bolton, P., Prior, J., Jordan, H., & Rutter, M. (1997). A family study of autism: cognitive patterns and levels in parents and siblings. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 38, 667683.
  • Frankel, W.N., & Schork, N.J. (1996). Who's afraid of epistasis? Nature Genetics, 14, 371373.
  • Freimer, N., & Sabatti, C. (2003). The human phenome project. Nature Genetics, 34, 1521.
  • Garcia-Toro, M., & Aguirre, I. (2007). Biopsychosocial model in depression revisited. Medical Hypotheses, 68, 683691.
  • Geschwind, D. (2007). Autism: Searching for coherence. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 949950.
  • Globus, G.G., & Arpaia, J.P. (1994). Psychiatry and the new dynamics. Biological Psychiatry, 35, 352364.
  • Goldstein, J. (1999). Emergence as a construct: History and issues. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 1, 4972.
  • Goodman, R. (1989). Infantile autism: A syndrome of multiple primary deficits? Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 19, 409424.
  • Gottesman, I.I., & Gould, T.D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: Etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636645.
  • Gottesman, I.I., & Hanson, D.R. (2005). Human development: Biological and genetic processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 263286.
  • Gousse, V., Plumet, M., Chabane, N., Mouren-Simeoni, M., Ferradian, N., & Leboyer, M. (2002). Fringe phenotypes in autism: A review of clinical, biochemical and cognitive studies. European Psychiatry, 17, 120128.
  • Gupta, A.R., & State, M.W. (2007). Recent advances in the genetics of autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 429437.
  • Hallmayer, J., Glasson, E.J., Bower, C., Petterson, B., Croen, L., Grether, J., et al. (2002). On the twin risk in autism. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 941946.
  • Happé, F., Ronald, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience 9: 12181220.
  • Hardan, A.Y., Keshavan, M.S., Sreedhar, S., Vemulapalli, M., & Minshew, N.J. (2006). An MRI study of minor physical anomalies in autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 36, 607611.
  • Hazlett, H.C., Poe, M., Gerig, G., Smith, R.G., Provenzale, J., Ross, A., et al., (2005). Magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference study of brain size in autism: Birth through age 2 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 13661376.
  • Herbert, M.R., Russo, J.P., Yang, S., Roohi, J., Blaxill, M., Kahler, S.G., et al. (2006). Autism and environmental genomics. Neurotoxicology, 27, 671684.
  • Holland, J.H. (1998). Emergence: From chaos to order. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
  • Hollander, E., Cartwright, C., Wong, C.M., DeCaria, C.M., DelGiudice-Asch, G., Buchsbaum, M.S., et al. (1998). A dimensional approach to the autism spectrum. CNS Spectrums, 3, 2239.
  • IGDA Workgroup, WPA. (2003). IGDA. 8: Idiographic (personalized) diagnostic formulation. British Journal of Psychiatry Suppl, 45, s55s57.
  • Jiang, Y.H., Sahoo, T., Michaelis, R.C., Bercovich, D., Bressler, J., et al. (2004). A mixed epigenetic/genetic model for oligogenic inheritance of autism with a limited role for UBE3A. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 131, 110.
  • Kauffman, S. (1995). At home in the universe. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Keller, F., & Persico, A.M. (2003). The neurobiological context of autism. Molecular Neurobiology, 28, 122.
  • Kim, J. (2006). Emergence: Core ideas and issues. Synthese, 151, 547559.
  • Klimkeit, E.I., & Bradshaw, J.L. (2006). Anomalous lateralization in neurodevelopmental disorders. Cortex, 42, 113116.
  • Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: Lessons from autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences, 358, 345360.
  • Klin, A., Volkmar, F.R., Sparrow, S.S. (2000). Introduction. In: Klin, A., Volkmar, F.R., & Sparrow, S.S., editors. Asperger Syndrome. New York: Guilford, p 124.
  • Kolevzon, A., Smith, C.J., Schmeidler, J., Buxbaum, J.D., & Silverman, J.M. (2004). Familial symptom domains in monozygotic siblings with autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B, 129, 7681.
  • Kulman, G., Lissoni, P., Rovelli, F., Roselli, M.G., Brivio, F., & Sequeri, P. (2000). Evidence of pineal endocrine hypofunction in autistic children, Neuroendocrinology Letters, 20, 3134.
  • Lainhart, J.E., Bigler, E.D., Bocian, M., Coon, H., Dinh, E., Dawson, G., et al. (2006). Head circumference and height in autism: A study by the Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics (A), 140, 22572274.
  • Lam, K.S., Aman, M.G., & Arnold, L.E. (2006). Neurochemical correlates of autistic disorder: A review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27, 254289.
  • Lauritsen, M., & Ewald, H. (2001). The genetics of autism. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica, 103, 411427.
  • Leboyer, M., Bellivier, F., Nosten-Bertrand, M., Jouvent, R., Pauls, D., & Mallet, J. (1998). Psychiatric genetics: Search for phenotypes. Trends in Neurosciences, 21, 102105.
  • Le Couteur, A., Bailey, A., Goode, S., Pickles, A., Robertson, S., Gottesman, I., et al. (1996). A broader phenotype of autism: The clinical spectrum in twins. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 37, 785801.
  • Li, C.C. (1987). A genetical model for emergenesis: In memory of Laurence H. Snyder, 1901–1986. American Journal of Human Genetics, 41, 517523.
  • Liu, X., Hubbard, J.A., Fabes, R.A., Adam, J.B. (2006). Sleep disturbances and correlates of children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 37, 179191.
  • Lord, C., & Pickles, A. (1996). Language level and nonverbal social-communicative behaviors in autistic and language-delayed children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 15421550.
  • Loscalzo, J., Kohane, I., & Barabasi, A.L. (2007). Human disease classification in the postgenomic era: A complex systems approach to human pathobiology. Molecular Systems Biology, 3(124), 111.
  • Lund, J., & Jensen, J. (1989). Dimensional approach to infantile autism in mentally retarded adults. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 80, 389394.
  • Lykken, D.T. (2006). The mechanism of emergenesis. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 5, 306310.
  • Lykken, D.T., Iacono, W.G., Haroian, K., McGue, M., & Bouchard, T.J., Jr. (1988). Habituation of the skin conductance response to strong stimuli: A twin study. Psychophysiology, 25, 415.
  • Ma, D.Q., Jaworski, J., Menold, M.M., Donnelly, S., Abramson, R.K., Wright, H.H., et al. (2005). Ordered-subset analysis of savant skills in autism for 15q11-q13. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B, 135, 3841.
  • Mandell, A.J., & Selz, K.A. (1995). Nonlinear dynamical patterns as personality theory for neurobiology and psychiatry. Psychiatry, 58, 371390.
  • McBride, P.A., Anderson, G.M., Hertzig, M.E., Snow, M.E., Thompson, S.M., Khait, V.D., et al. (1998). Effects of diagnosis, race, and pubertal status on platelet serotonin levels in autism and mental retardation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 767779.
  • McBride, P.A., Anderson, G.M., Herzig, M., Sweeney, J., Kream, J., Cohen, D.J., et al. (1989). Serotonergic responsivity in male young adults with autistic disorder: Results of a pilot study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 213221.
  • McBride, P.A., Anderson, G.M., & Shapiro, T. (1996). Autism research; bringing together approaches to pull apart the disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 980983.
  • McCourt, K., Bouchard, T.J., Lykken, D.T., Tellegen, A., & Keyes, M. (1999). Authoritarianism revisited: Genetic and environmental influences examined in twins reared apart and together. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 9851014.
  • McDougle, C.J., Erickson, C.A., Stigler, K.A., & Posey, D.J. (2005). Neurochemistry in the pathophysiology of autism. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66 (Suppl 10), 918.
  • McGuffin, P., Riley, B., & Plomin, R. (2001). Genomics and behavior. Toward behavioral genomics. Science, 291, 12321249.
  • Meehl, P.E. (1979). A funny thing happened on the way to the latent entities. Journal of Personality, 43, 564577.
  • Mei, H., Cuccaro, M.L., & Martin, E.R. (2007). Multifactor dimensionality reduction-phenomics: A novel method to capture genetic heterogeneity with use of phenotypic variables. American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, 12511261.
  • Merikangas, K.R., Low, N.C., & Hardy, J. (2006). Commentary: Understanding sources of complexity in chronic diseases–the importance of integration of genetics and epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 590592.
  • Mezzich, J.E. (2002). Comprehensive diagnosis: A conceptual basis for future diagnostic systems. Psychopathology, 35, 162165.
  • Micali, N., Chakrabarti, S., & Fombonne, E. (2004). The broad autism phenotype. Autism, 8, 2137.
  • Miles, J.H., Hadden, L.L., Takahashi, T.N., & Hillman, R.E. (2000). Head circumference is an independent clinical finding associated with autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 95, 339350.
  • Minderaa, R.B., Volkmar, F.R., Hansen, C.R., Harcherik, D.F., Akkerhuis, G.W., & Cohen D.J. 1985. Snout and visual rooting reflexes in infantile autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 15, 409416.
  • Minshew, N.J., Sweeney, J.A., Bauman, M.L., & Webb, S.J. (2005). Neurologic aspects of autism. In: Volkmar, F.R., Klin, A., Paul, R., & Cohen, D.J., editors. Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed.), New York: Wiley, p 473514.
  • Mouridsen, S.E., Rich, B., Isager, T. (2008). Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 39, 18.
  • Mulder, E.J., Anderson, G.M., Kema, I.P., Brugman, A.M., Ketelaars, C.E., de Bildt, A., (2005). Serotonin transporter intron 2 polymorphism associated with rigid-compulsive behaviors in Dutch individuals with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 133, 9396.
  • Mulder, E.J., Anderson, G.M., Kema, I.P., de Bildt, A., van Lang, N.D., den Boer, J.A. et al. (2004). Platelet serotonin levels in pervasive developmental disorders and mental retardation: Diagnostic group differences, within-group distribution, and behavioral correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 491499.
  • Murphy, D.G., Daly, E., Schmitz, N., Toal, F., Murphy, K., Curran, S., et al. (2006). Cortical 5-HT2A receptor binding and social communicaton in adults with Asperger syndrome: And in vivo SPECT study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 934946.
  • Murphy, M., Bolton, P.F., Pickles, A., Fombonne, E., Piven, J., & Rutter M. (2000). Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychological Medicine, 30, 14111424.
  • Myhr, G. (1998). Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: Exploring the dimensional view. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry - Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 43, 589595.
  • Nir, I., Meir, D., Zilber, N., Knobler, H., Hadjez, J., & Lerner, Y. (1995). Brief report: Circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 25, 641654.
  • Nishimura, Y., Martin, C.L., Vazquez-Lopez, A., Spence, S.J., Alvarez-Retuerto, A.I., Sigman, M., et al. (2007). Genome-wide expression profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines distinguishes different forms of autism and reveals shared pathways. Human Molecular Genetics, 16, 16821698.
  • Nurmi, E.L., Dowd, M., Tadevosyan-Leyfer, O., Haines, J.L., Folstein, S.E., & Sutcliffe, J.S. (2003). Exploratory subsetting of autism families based on savant skills improves evidence of genetic linkage to 15q11-q13. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 856863.
  • Ober, C., Abney, M., & McPeek, M.S. (2001). The genetic dissection of complex traits in a founder population. American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 10681079.
  • Ozonoff, S., Cook, I., Coon, H., Dawson, G., Joseph, R.M., Klin, A., et al. (2004). Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery subtests sensitive to frontal lobe function in people with autistic disorder: evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism network. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 34, 139150.
  • Paulus, M.P., & Braff, D.L. (2003). Chaos and schizophrenia: Does the method fit the madness? Biological Psychiatry, 53, 311.
  • Phillips, J. (2005). Idiographic formulations, symbols, narratives, context and meaning. Psychopathology, 38, 180184.
  • Pickett, J., & London, E. (2005). The neuropathology of autism: A review. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 64, 925935.
  • Piven, J. (2001). The broad autism phenotype: A complementary strategy for molecular genetic studies of autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 105, 3435.
  • Piven, J., Nehme, E., Simon, J., Barta, P., Pearlson, G., & Folstein, S.E. (1992). Magnetic resonance imaging in autism: Measurement of the cerebellum, pons, and fourth ventricle. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 491504.
  • Piven, J., Tsai, G.C., Nehme, E., Coyle, J.T., Chase, G.A., & Folstein, S.E. (1991). Platelet serotonin, a possible marker for familial autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 21, 5159.
  • Polleux, F., & Lauder, J.M. (2004). Toward a developmental neurobiology of autism. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10, 303317.
  • Poustka, F., & Lisch, S. (1993). Autistic behaviour domains and their relation to self-injurious behaviour. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 56, 6973.
  • Pring, L. (2005). Savant talent. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47, 500503.
  • Richler, J., Bishop, S.L., Kleinke, J.R., & Lord, C. (2007). Restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37, 7385.
  • Risch, N., Spiker, D., Lotspeich. L., Nouri, N., Hinds, D., et al. (1999). A genomic screen of autism: Evidence for a multilocus etiology. American Journal of Human Genetics, 65, 493507.
  • Rodier, P.M., Bryson, S.E., & Welch, J.P. (1997). Minor malformations and physical measurements in autism: Data from Nova Scotia. Teratology, 55, 319325.
  • Ronald, A., Happé, F., Bolton, P., Butcher, L.M., Price, T.S., Wheelwright, S. et al. (2006). Genetic heterogeneity between the three components of the autism spectrum: A twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 691699.
  • Ronald, A., Happé, F., & Plomin, R. (2005). The genetic relationship between individual differences in social and nonsocial behaviours characteristic of autism. Developmental Science, 8, 444458.
  • Ronald, A., Happé, F., Price, T.S., Baron-Cohen, S., & Plomin, R. (2006). Phenotypic and genetic overlap between autistic traits at the extremes of the general population. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 12061214.
  • Rossi, P.G., Parmeggiani, A., Bach, V., Santucci, M., & Visconti, P. (1995). EEG features and epilepsy in patients with autism. Brain & Development, 17, 169174.
  • Rossi, P.G., Posar, A., & Parmeggiani, A. (2000). Epilepsy in adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder. Brain & Development, 22, 102106.
  • Rounsaville, B.J., Alarcon, R.D., Andrews, G., Jackson, J.S., Kendall, R.E., & Kendler, K. (2002). Basic nomenclature issues. In: Kupfer, D., First, M. & Regier, D., editors. APA Research Agenda for DSM-V (1-30). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.
  • Sacco, R., Militerni, R., Frolli, A., Bravaccio, C., Gritti, A., Elia, M., et al. (2007). Clinical, morphological, and biochemical correlates of head circumference in autism. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 10381047.
  • Sadler, T.W. (2006). Langman's medical embryology (10th edition). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Santangelo, S.L., & Tsatsanis, K. (2005). What is known about autism: Genes, brain, and behavior. American Journal of PharmacoGenomics, 5, 7192.
  • Sauer, U., Heinemann, M., & Zamboni, A. (2007). Genetics: Getting closer to the whole picture. Science, 316, 550551.
  • Schanen, N.C. (2006). Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders. Human Molecular Genetics, 15, Spec No 2, R138R150.
  • Sebat, J., Lakshmi, B., Malhotra, D., Troge, J., Lese-Martin, C., Walsh, T., et al. (2007). Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with autism. Science, 316, 445449.
  • Shao, Y., Cuccaro, M.L., Hauser, E.R., Raiford, K.L., Menold, M.M., Wolpert, C.M., et al. (2003). Fine mapping of autistic disorder to chromosome 15q11-q13 by use of phenotypic subtypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72, 539548.
  • Silverman, J.M., Smith, C.J., Schmeidler, J., Hollander, E., Lawlor, B.A., Fitzgerald, M., et al. (2002). Autism Genetic Research Exchange Consortium. Symptom domains in autism and related conditions: Evidence for familiality. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 6473.
  • Sing, C.F. & Reilly, S.L. (1993). Genetics of common diseases that aggregate, but do not segregate in families. In: Sing, C.F., & Hanis, C.L., editors. Genetics of cellular, individual, family, and population variability. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Skuse, D., Warrington, R., Bishop, D., Chowdhury, U., Lau, J., Mandy, W., et al. (2004). The developmental, dimensional and diagnostic interview (3di): A novel computerized assessment for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 548558.
  • Smith, I.M., & Bryson, S.E. (1988). Monozygotic twins concordant for autism and hyperlexia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 30, 527531.
  • South, M., Ozonoff, S., & McMahon, W.M. (2005). Repetitive behavior profiles in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 35, 145158.
  • Sperry, R.W. (1980). Mind-brain interaction: Mentalism, yes; dualism, no. Neuroscience, 5, 195206.
  • Spiker, D., Lotspeich, L.J., Dimiceli, S., Myers, R.M., & Risch, N. (2002). Behavioral phenotypic variation in autism multiplex families: Evidence for a continuous severity gradient. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 129136.
  • Starr, E., Berument, S.K., Pickles, A., Tomlins, M., Bailey, A., Papanikolaou, K., et al. (2001). A family genetic study of autism associated with profound mental retardation. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31, 8996.
  • Steffenburg, S., Gillberg, C., Hellgren, L., Andersson. L., Gillberg, I.C., Jakobsson, G., et al. (1989). A twin study of autism in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 30, 405416.
  • Stewart, J. (1992). Genetics and biology: A comment on the significance of the Elston-Stewart algorithm. Human Heredity, 42, 915.
  • Stoppelbein, L., Greening, L., & Kakooza, A. (2006). The importance of catatonia and stereotypies in autistic spectrum disorders. International Review of Neurobiology, 72, 103118.
  • Stromswold, K. (2006). Why aren't identical twins linguistically identical? Cognition, 101, 233284.
  • Sung, Y.J., Dawson, G., Munson, J., Estes, A., Schellenberg, G.D., & Wijsman, E.M. (2005). Genetic investigation of quantitative traits related to autism: Use of multivariate polygenic models with ascertainment adjustment. American Journal of Human Genetics, 76, 6881.
  • Sutcliffe, J.S., Delahanty, R.J., Prasad, H.C., McCauley, J.L., Han, Q., Jiang, L., et al. (2005). Allelic heterogeneity at the serotonin transporter locus (SLC6A4) confers susceptibility to autism and rigid-compulsive behaviors. American Journal of Human Genetics, 77, 265279.
  • Szatmari, P., Mérette, C., Bryson, S.E., Thivierge, J., Roy, M.A., Cayer, M., et al. (2002). Quantifying dimensions in autism: A factor-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 467474.
  • Tadevosyan-Leyfer, O., Dowd, M., Mankoski, R., Winklosky, B., Putnam, S., McGrath, L., et al. (2003). A principal components analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 864872.
  • Tanguay, P.E. (1999). Understanding autism–a work in progress. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 24, 9596.
  • Tegner, J., & Bjorkegren, J. (2007). Perturbations to uncover gene networks. Trends in Genetics, 23, 3441.
  • The Autism Genome Project Consortium. (2007). Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nature Genetics, 39, 319328.
  • The ENCODE Project Consortium. (2007). Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature, 447, 799816.
  • Thioux, M., Stark, D.E., Klaiman, C., & Schultz, R.T. (2006). The day of the week when you were born in 700 ms: calendar computation in an Autistic savant. Journal of Experimantal Psychology and Human Perception and Performance, 32, 11551168.
  • Thirumalai, S.S., Shubin, R.A., & Robinson, R. (2002). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in children with autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 17, 173178.
  • Tordjman, S., Anderson, G.M., Pichard, N., Charbuy, H., & Touitou Y. (2005). Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 134138.
  • Tordjman, S., Gutneckt, L., Carlier, M., Spitz, A.C., Slama, F., Cohen, D.J., et al. (2001). Role of the serotonin transporter in the behavioral expression of autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 434439.
  • Torrey, E.F., Dhavale, D., Lawlor, J.P., & Yolken, R.H. (2004). Autism and head circumference in the first year of life. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 892894.
  • Trull, T.J., Tragesser, S.L., Solhan, M., & Schwartz-Mette, R. (2007). Dimensional models of personality disorder: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition and beyond. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 5256.
  • Tuchman, R., & Rapin, I. (2002). Epilepsy in autism. Lancet Neurology, 1, 352358.
  • van Praag, H.M. (2000). Nosologomania: a disorder of psychiatry. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 1, 151158.
  • Veenstra-Vanderweele, J., Christian, S.L., Cook, E.H. Jr. (2004). Autism as a paradigmatic complex genetic disorder. Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics, 5, 379405.
  • Viding, E., & Blakemore, S.J. (2007). Endophenotype approach to developmental psychopathology: Implications for autism research. Behavioral Genetics, 37, 5160.
  • Volkmar, F.R., & Nelson, D.S. (1990). Seizure disorders in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 127129.
  • Waldrop, M.M. (1992). Complexity. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Warren, K., & Knox, K. (2000). Offense cycles, thresholds and bifurcations: Applying dynamical systems theory to the behaviors of adolescent sex offenders. Journal of Social Service Research 27, 127.
  • Weiskop, S., Richdale, A., & Matthews, J. (2005). Behavioural treatment to reduce sleep problems in children with autism or fragile X syndrome. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 47, 94104.
  • Weiss, L.A., Kosova, G., Delahanty, R.J., Jiang, L., Cook, E.H., Ober, C., & Sutcliffe, J.S. (2006). Variation in ITGB3 is associated with whole-blood serotonin level and autism susceptibility. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 923931.
  • Widiger, T.A., & Samuel, D.B. (2005). Diagnostic categories or dimensions? A question for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders–fifth edition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 494504.
  • Wier, M.L., Yoshida, C.K., Odouli, R., Grether, J.K., & Croen, L.A. (2006). Congenital anomalies associated with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 48, 500507.
  • Wiesbeck, G.A., Dürsteler-MacFarland, K.M., Walter, M., Weijers, H.G., & Boening J. (2005). A three-axes approach of subtyping the alcohol dependence syndrome. Psychopathology, 38, 9196.
  • Williams, D. (2006) http://www.awares.org/conferences/show_paper.asp?section=000100010001&conferenceCode=000200010009&id=6&full_paper=1
  • Wing, L. (2005). Problems of categorical classification systems. In: Volkmar, F.R., Klin, A., Paul, R., & Cohen, D.J., editors. Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley, p 583605.
  • Wing, L., & Wing, J.K. (1971). Multiple impairments in early childhood autism. Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 256266.
  • Wolfram, S. (2002). A new kind of science. Wolfram Media: Champaigne, Ill. (www.stephenwolfram.com).