• coronary artery stents;
  • nanocomposite material;
  • polymer;
  • endothelium progenitor cells;
  • in situ endothelialization;
  • stem cells;
  • medical device;
  • intervention


Owing to their noninvasive nature, coronary artery stents have become popular demand for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Late restenosis, in-stent restenosis, and late thrombosis, all mediated by the denuded endothelium, represent the most recurrent failures of vascular stent induction. Higher patency rates of stents can be achieved by restoring the native internal environment of the vessel—an endothelium monolayer. This active organ inhibits the inflammatory reaction to injury responsible for thrombus and intimal hyperplasia, thereby providing a novel therapeutic option to combat the unacceptably high prevalence of restenosis. As the climax of the nanotechnology era approaches, tissue engineering is being explored by means of exploiting the multipotent abilities of stem cells and their adherence to bioactive surface nanocomposite polymers. The endothelium can be reconstructed from neighboring intact endothelium and adherence of circulating endothelium progenitor cells. The latter takes place via a series of signaling events: mobilization, adhesion, chemoattraction, migration, proliferation, and finally their differentiation in mature endothelial cells. A nanotopography surface can orchestrate endothelium formation, attributable to cellular interactions promoted by its nanosize. This review encompasses the prospect of in situ endothelialization, the mechanisms regulating the process, and the advantages of using a new generation of bioactive nanocomposite materials for coating metal stent scaffolds.