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Abstract

BACKGROUND

The possible association between oral cleft in the newborn and maternal exposure to corticoids during pregnancy is still controversial. The aim of this study was to test this association by a case-control analysis using the large multicentric MADRE database.

METHODS

The MADRE database is a collection of information on malformed infants with a history of maternal first-trimester drug exposure. Nine malformation registries participate in the data collection. Cases were defined as infants presenting with a cleft palate or cleft lip, and exposure was defined by the use of corticosteroids during the first trimester of pregnancy.

RESULTS

After 12 years of data collection, the database includes data on 11,150 malformed infants. A slight association is observed between exposure to corticoids for systemic use and the occurrence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.18–5.67).

CONCLUSIONS

If the observed association is real, an interpretation is suggested, based on a likely interaction between corticosteroids and environmental dioxins. It is indeed possible that human fetuses may become sensitive to the teratogenic effect of corticosteroids when they are exposed in utero to environmental pesticides as well. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.