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In vivo hyperglycemia and its effect on Glut-1 expression in the embryonic heart

Authors

  • Nia T. Joyner,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
    • Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 7606-8401
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  • Ida W. Smoak

    1. Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
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  • Presented in part at the 2001 Experimental Biology meeting, 31 March-4 April 2001 in Orlando, FL and the 41st meeting of the Teratology Society, 23–28 June 2001 in Montreal, Canada

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Maternal diabetes exposes embryos to periods of hyperglycemia. Glucose is important for normal cardiogenesis, and Glut-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in the embryo.

METHODS

Pregnant mice were exposed to 6 or 12 hr hyperglycemia during organogenesis using intraperitoneal (IP) injections of D-glucose on gestational day (GD) 9.5 (plug = GD 0.5). Embryos were examined for morphology and total cardiac protein, and embryonic hearts were evaluated for Glut-1 protein and mRNA expression immediately after treatment (GD 9.75, GD 10.0), as well as on GD 10.5 and GD 12.5.

RESULTS

IP glucose injections were effective in producing sustained maternal hyperglycemia. Maternal hyperglycemia for 6 or 12 hr on GD 9.5, followed by normoglycemia, produced a decrease in overall size and total cardiac protein in embryos evaluated on GD 10.5 but no difference on GD 12.5. Cardiac Glut-1 expression was immediately upregulated in embryos exposed to 6 or 12 hr maternal hyperglycemia. On GD 10.5, cardiac Glut-1 expression was not different in embryos exposed to maternal hyperglycemia for 6 hr but was downregulated in embryos exposed for 12 hr. On GD 12.5, cardiac Glut-1 expression in embryos exposed to maternal hyperglycemia on GD 9.5 for 6 or 12 hr, followed by normoglycemia, was not different from controls. The temporal pattern was the same for Glut-1 protein and mRNA expression.

CONCLUSIONS

Hyperglycemia-induced alterations in Glut-1 expression likely interfere with balance of glucose available to the embryonic heart that may affect cardiac morphogenesis. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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