Neural tube closure is a critical embryological process that requires the coordination of many molecular and cellular events. Only recently has the molecular basis of the cell movements that drive neural tube closure begun to be elucidated. This has been accomplished in part due to the analysis of a growing number of genetically targeted and naturally occurring mouse mutant strains that have neural tube defects (NTDs). Currently there are more than 100 genes that when mutated result in NTDs in the mouse. Yet only approximately 10% of genes in the mouse genome have been mutated and their gross phenotype analyzed, suggesting that only a small percentage of the genes that can cause NTDs have been identified.