Gastrulating chick embryo as a model for evaluating teratogenicity: A comparison of three approaches
Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005
Copyright © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Volume 76, Issue 1, pages 66–71, January 2006
How to Cite
Drake, V. J., Koprowski, S. L., Lough, J. W. and Smith, S. M. (2006), Gastrulating chick embryo as a model for evaluating teratogenicity: A comparison of three approaches. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 76: 66–71. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20202
- Issue published online: 17 JAN 2006
- Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 JUL 2005
- Manuscript Received: 13 MAY 2005
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: ES-11738, AA11085
- American Heart Association. Grant Number: 0510017Z
- teratogen delivery;
- chick embryo;
- methods assessment;
- morphological score
Teratology studies must be carefully designed to minimize potential secondary effects of vehicle and delivery routes. A systematic method to evaluate chick models of early embryogenesis is lacking.
We investigated 3 experimental approaches that are popular for studies of early avian development, in terms of their utility for teratogen assessment starting at gastrulation. These included in vitro embryo culture, egg windowing followed by direct application of a carrier vehicle to the embryo, and injection of a carrier vehicle into the egg yolk. We also developed a morphologically based scoring system to assess development of the early embryo.
The in vitro culture and egg windowing approaches both caused an unacceptably high incidence of central nervous system and cardiac abnormalities in vehicle-treated embryos, which made it difficult to identify teratogen-specific defects. In contrast, exposing chick embryos to vehicle via direct egg yolk injection did not induce developmental anomalies.
Optimization of the exposure route of potential toxicants to the embryo is critical because control treatments can cause developmental anomalies. In ovo yolk injection minimizes perturbation of young embryos and may be appropriate for teratogen delivery. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.