Get access

Wnt9b is the mutated gene involved in multifactorial nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in A/WySn mice, as confirmed by a genetic complementation test

Authors

  • Diana M. Juriloff,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Life Sciences Centre, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Muriel J. Harris,

    1. Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Andrew P. McMahon,

    1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Thomas J. Carroll,

    1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
    2. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Andrew C. Lidral

    1. Department of Orthodontics and Dows Institute for Dental Research, University of Iowa School of Dentistry, Iowa City, Iowa
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip (CL) with or without cleft palate (CLP) is a common human birth defect with complex genetic etiology. One of the unidentified genes maps to chromosome 17q21. A mouse strain, A/WySn, has CLP with complex genetic etiology that models the human defect, and 1 of its causative genes, clf1, maps to a region homologous to human 17q21. Extensive studies of the candidate region pointed to a novel insertion of an IAP transposon 3′ from the gene Wnt9b as the clf1 mutation. Independently a recessive knockout mutation of Wnt9b (Wnt9b) was reported to cause a lethal syndrome that includes some CLP. METHODS: A standard genetic test of allelism between clf1 and the Wnt9b mutation was done. A total of 83 F1 embryos at gestation day 14 (GD 14) from Wnt9b/+ males crossed with A/WySn females, and 79 BC1 GD 14 embryos from F1 Wnt9b/clf1 males back-crossed to A/WySn females were observed for CL. Embryo genotypes at clf1 and Wnt9b were obtained from DNA markers. Genotypes for a second unlinked modifier locus from A/WySn, clf2, were similarly obtained. RESULTS: The compound mutant embryos (Wnt9b/clf1) had high frequencies of CL: 27% in the F1 and 63% in the BC1. The clf2 modifier gene was found to have 3 alleles segregating in this study and to strongly influence the penetrance of CL in the compound mutant. CONCLUSIONS: The noncomplementation of clf1 and Wnt9b confirms that clf1 is a mutation of the Wnt9b gene. The homologous human WNT9B gene and 3′ conserved noncoding region should be examined for a role in human nonsyndromic CLP. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 76:574–579, 2006. © 2006 Wiley–Liss, Inc.

Get access to the full text of this article

Ancillary