The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Maternal thyroid disease, thyroid medication use, and selected birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study†
Article first published online: 12 FEB 2009
Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Volume 85, Issue 7, pages 621–628, July 2009
How to Cite
Browne, M. L., Rasmussen, S. A., Hoyt, A. T., Waller, D. K., Druschel, C. M., Caton, A. R., Canfield, M. A., Lin, A. E., Carmichael, S. L. and Romitti, P. A. (2009), Maternal thyroid disease, thyroid medication use, and selected birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 85: 621–628. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20573
- Issue published online: 8 JUL 2009
- Article first published online: 12 FEB 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 3 JAN 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 29 DEC 2008
- Manuscript Received: 19 NOV 2008
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Grant Number: U50/CCU223184
- Slone Epidemiology Center Drug Dictionary
- Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University
- thyroid hormones;
- thyroid disease;
- congenital abnormalities;
- birth defects
BACKGROUND: Although thyroid disorders are present in approximately 3% of pregnant women, little is known about the association between maternal thyroid disease and birth defects. METHODS: We assessed the association between maternal thyroid disease, thyroid medication use, and 38 types of birth defects among 14,067 cases and 5875 controls in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite, population-based, case-control study. Infants in this study were born between October 1997 and December 2004. Information on exposures including maternal diseases and use of medications was collected by telephone interview. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between maternal thyroid disease and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction heart defects (1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.3), hydrocephaly (2.9; 95% CI, 1.6–5.2), hypospadias (1.6; 95% CI, 1.0–2.5), and isolated anorectal atresia (2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.6). Estimates for the association between periconceptional use of thyroxine and specific types of birth defects were similar to estimates for any thyroid disease. Given that antithyroid medication use was rare, we could not adequately assess risks for their use for most case groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the positive associations between maternal thyroid disease or thyroid medication use and both hydrocephaly and hypospadias observed in some previous studies. New associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction heart defects and anorectal atresia may be chance findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.