• caffeine;
  • orofacial clefts;
  • birth defects


BACKGROUND: Moderate caffeine intake during pregnancy is common, but little is known about its potential association with birth defects. METHODS: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study is a population-based, case-control study of major birth defects, excluding infants with single-gene disorders and chromosomal abnormalities. This analysis includes infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate only (CPO), excluding infants whose cleft was secondary to holoprosencephaly or amniotic band sequence. Mothers reported dietary caffeine intake from coffee, tea, sodas, and chocolate in the year before pregnancy and reported intake of medications containing caffeine during pregnancy. We assessed the association between dietary caffeine intake, frequency of consuming each type of caffeinated beverage, medications containing caffeine, and CL/P or CPO among infants born from October 1997 through December 2004. RESULTS: This analysis included 1531 infants with CL/P, 813 infants with CPO, and 5711 infants with no major birth defects (controls). Examining dietary sources among control mothers, 11% reported consuming at least 300 mg of caffeine per day and 17% reported consuming less than 10 mg of caffeine per day; high consumption (≥3 servings per day) was reported by 8% (coffee), 4% (tea), and 15% (sodas); medications containing at least 100 mg caffeine/dose were reported by less than 1%. Although some effect estimates were elevated for moderate caffeine intake from all beverages, estimates were closer to the null for high caffeine levels. Isolated CL/P was associated with use of medications containing at least 100 mg of caffeine per dose. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not suggest an association between maternal dietary caffeine intake and orofacial clefts, but caffeine-containing medications merit further study. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.