Over the last several decades, federal agencies engaged in the screening of environmental or pharmaceutical agents have recognized the need to conduct research in animal models to identify agents that have classic teratogenic effects as well as effects on neural and behavioral development. Many questions typically addressed in rodent models can be further addressed using real-world, everyday human exposures. Although some postmarketing surveillance programs have been put in place to examine the influences on birth characteristics, it is now urgent that programs be launched to examine the long-term risks associated with exposure to the many medications, drugs, and environmental chemicals for which data are currently unavailable and unexplored. The California Teratogen Information Service (CTIS), established in 1983, and its corresponding Clinical Research Program represent the oldest national program directed at identifying pregnancy risk factors and exposures associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, including behavioral dysfunction. In recognition of the rising rates of developmental disorders involving compromised mental ability, in 2007, CTIS committed to the development of a more comprehensive screening program designed to detect relationships between adverse prenatal exposures and compromised human neurobehavioral development. The “CTIS Womb to Classroom Screening Program for the Detection of Agents with Adverse Effects on Neuropsychological Development” is the first program designed to identify agents not yet known to be of concern. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.