Periconceptional paternal smoking and the risk of congenital heart defects: A case-control study

Authors

  • Kui Deng,

    1. National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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  • Zhen Liu,

    1. National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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  • Yuan Lin,

    1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujian Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
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  • Dezhi Mu,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Obstetric and Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of Ministry of Education, China
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  • Xinlin Chen,

    1. Department of Ultrasound, Hubei Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China
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  • Jun Li,

    1. Department of Ultrasound, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
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  • Nana Li,

    1. National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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  • Ying Deng,

    1. National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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  • Xiaohong Li,

    1. National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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  • Yanping Wang,

    1. National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    2. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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  • Shengli Li,

    1. Department of Ultrasound, Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
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  • Jun Zhu

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology for Birth Defects, West China Institute of Women and Children's Health, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    • National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Erratum: Periconceptional paternal smoking and the risk of congenital heart defects: A case-control study Volume 100, Issue 12, 992, Article first published online: 5 November 2014

  • Competing Interest: The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.

  • Supported by a grant from the National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB529502), Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT0935).

Correspondence to: Jun Zhu, National Center for Birth Defects monitoring of China, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, 17, Section 3, Ren Min South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. E-mail: zhujun028@163.com

Abstract

Background

Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, few studies have reported the association between paternal smoking during pregnancy and CHDs among offspring. This report presents the first case-control study to investigate the possible association between periconceptional paternal smoking and CHDs in China.

Methods

From February 2010 through October 2011, 284 case fetuses with nonsyndromic CHDs and 422 control fetuses with no birth defects were recruited. The mothers of cases and controls were interviewed regarding whether the fathers of fetuses smoked and avoided the mothers while smoking during the periconceptional period. An unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while controlling for potential confounders.

RESULTS

Light paternal smoking increased the risk of isolated conotruncal heart defects (AOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.05, 4.73). Medium paternal smoking seemed to be associated with septal defects (AOR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.05, 3.98) and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (AOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.04, 5.95). Heavy paternal smoking was also associated with isolated conotruncal heart defects (AOR, 8.16; 95% CI, 1.13, 58.84) and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (AOR, 13.12; 95% CI, 2.55, 67.39). Paternal smoking with no avoidance behavior was associated with an increased risk of these CHDs subtypes.

CONCLUSIONS

Periconceptional paternal smoking increased the risk of isolated conotruncal heart defects, septal defects and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. The avoidance behavior of paternal smokers may decrease the risk of selected CHDs. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:210–216, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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