Atrazine, a chlorotriazine herbicide, is used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. In this review, we summarize our laboratory's work evaluating the neuroendocrine toxicity of atrazine (and related chlorotriazines) from an historic perspective. We provide the rationale for our work as we have endeavored to determine: 1) the underlying reproductive changes leading to the development of mammary gland tumors in the atrazine-exposed female rat; 2) the cascade of physiological events that are responsible for these changes (i.e., the mode of action for mammary tumors); 3) the potential cellular mechanisms involving adverse effects of atrazine; and 4) the range of reproductive alterations associated with this pesticide. Birth Defects Res (Part B), 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.