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Early genetic control of craniofacial development is affected by the in vitro exposure of rat embryos to the fungicide triadimefon



BACKGROUND: Previous published experiments reported that in vitro exposure of postimplantation rat embryos to the triazole fungicide triadimefon (FON) resulted in specific abnormalities at the branchial apparatus and that the sensitive period is restricted to the first 24 hr of culture and is associated with the abnormal expression of TGF family genes (some of a large panel of genes regulated by retinoic acid (RA) and involved in branchial arch morphogenesis). The aim of this study is the determination of the sensitive window to FON-induced abnormalities during in vitro development and the evaluation of the expression of some genes controlled by RA and involved in early branchial arch morphogenesis (Gsc, Msx1, Msx2, Dlx1, Dlx2, Shh, Patched (the main Shh receptor)). METHODS: Rat embryos were exposed in vitro to the FON under condition known to be able to induce 100% of abnormal embryos (250  µ M) at different stages and examined after 48 hr of culture. The sensitive window for FON-induced abnormalities was during the hours E9 h8.00 PM–E10 h8.00 AM. To evaluate the expression of selected genes, embryos exposed during the sensitive stages were processed to perform quantitative PCR after 18 and 24 hr of culture. RESULTS: FON was able to affect the expression of some genes in a stage-specific manner: earlier embryos were characterized by the downregulation of Msx2 and Gsc, later embryos showed the downregulation of Gsc, Shh, and Patched. The obtained data suggest that FON-induced abnormalities are mediated, at least in part, through the imbalance of the expression of RA-related signals. Birth Defects Res (Part B) 92:77-81, 2011.  © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.