Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains a major therapeutic challenge despite advances in neonatal resuscitation and intensive care. The high mortality and morbidity in CDH has been attributed to pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PH). Bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) plays a key role in pulmonary vasculogenesis during the late stages of fetal lung development. BMPR2 is essential for control of endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Dysfunction of BMPR2 and downstream signaling have been shown to disturb the crucial balance of proliferation of smooth muscle cells contributing to the pathogenesis of human and experimental PH. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that BMPR2 signaling is disrupted in nitrofen-induced CDH.