Human stem cells, chromatin, and tissue engineering: Boosting relevancy in developmental toxicity testing
Article first published online: 30 MAY 2007
Copyright © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews
Volume 81, Issue 1, pages 20–40, March 2007
How to Cite
Cho, E. and Li, W.-J. (2007), Human stem cells, chromatin, and tissue engineering: Boosting relevancy in developmental toxicity testing. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, 81: 20–40. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.20088
- Issue published online: 30 MAY 2007
- Article first published online: 30 MAY 2007
- Intramural Research Program of NIAHS, NIH. Grant Number: Z01 AR41131
Risk assessment derives its confidence from toxicology research that is based on relevancy to human health. This article focuses on two highly topical areas of current scientific research, stem cells and chromatin biology, which present new avenues for preclinical and clinical applications, and the frontier role of tissue engineering and regeneration. Appreciating the utility and necessity of chromatin and human somatic stem cells as research tools and looking toward tissue engineering may close the uncertainty gaps between animal and human cross-species toxicology evaluations. The focus will be on developmental toxicology applications, but appropriate extrapolation to any other areas of toxicology can be made. We further provide background on basic biology of these three areas and examples of how early life exposure to known and potential environmental toxicants induce malformations, childhood and adult-onset diseases, through aberrant chromatin modification of critical gene expressions (acute lymphocyte leukemia, heavy-metal nickel and cadmium-associated defects, and reproductive tract malformations and carcinomas induced by the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol). Birth Defects Research (Part C) 81:20–40, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.