This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Review on genetic variants and maternal smoking in the etiology of oral clefts and other birth defects†
Article first published online: 26 MAR 2008
Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews
Special Issue: Tobacco and Pregnancy—Guest Editor: John M. Rogers
Volume 84, Issue 1, pages 16–29, March 2008
How to Cite
Shi, M., Wehby, G. L. and Murray, J. C. (2008), Review on genetic variants and maternal smoking in the etiology of oral clefts and other birth defects. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, 84: 16–29. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.20117
- Issue published online: 26 MAR 2008
- Article first published online: 26 MAR 2008
- Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Services. Grant Numbers: R03 DE018394-01, 1R01DD000295-01, P50 DE-16215, R37 DE-08559, 2P30 EY-5605
- cleft lip;
- cleft palate;
- birth defects;
- gene-environment interaction
A spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and birth defects has been linked with maternal smoking during pregnancy. This article includes a review of studies investigating interactions between genetic variants and maternal smoking in contributing to birth defects using oral clefting as a model birth defect. The primary gene-smoking studies for other major birth defects are also summarized. Gene-environment interaction studies for birth defects are still at an early stage with several mixed results, but evolving research findings have begun to document clinically and developmentally important interactions. As samples and data become increasingly available, more effort is needed in designing innovative analytical methods to study gene-environment interactions. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 84:16–29, 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.