• impulse radiating antenna;
  • subnanosecond pulses;
  • deep focus;
  • dielectric lens;
  • biological tissue


We have numerically studied the delivery of subnanosecond pulsed radiation to biological tissues for bioelectric applications. The antenna fed by 200 ps pulses uses an elliptical reflector in conjunction with a dielectric lens. Two numerical targets were studied: one was a hemispherical tissue with a resistivity of 0.3–1 S/m and a relative permittivity of 9–70 and the other was a realistic human head model (HUGO). The electromagnetic simulation shows that despite tissue heterogeneity of the human head, the electric field converges to a spot 8 cm in depth and the spot volume is approximately 1 cm × 2 cm × 1 cm in both cases when using only the reflector and a lens as an addition. Rather than increasing as it approaches the converging point, the electric field decreases strongly with distance from the skin to the converging point due to tissue resistive loss. The electric field distribution, however, can be reversed by making the dielectric lens lossy with the two innermost layers being partially resistive. The lossy lens causes an attenuation of the electric field near the axis, but the electric field generated by the waves which pass the lens at a wider angles compensate for this loss. A local maximum electric field in a deeper region of the tissue may form with the lossy lens. The study shows that it is possible to generate the desired electric field distribution in the complex biological target by modifying the dielectric properties of the lens used in conjunction with the reflector antenna. Bioelectromagnetics. 35:145–159, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.