Erroneous translation of a crucial document from the Inquisition file on the trial of Galileo Galilei: In 1616 Galileo was forbidden to propagate the doctrine that the earth revolves around the sun. This injunction, by order of the pope, was only to be implemented if Galileo actually refused when asked to abandon his stance. Galileo was asked and did refuse. This fact has remained hitherto unknown because of an error in translation. The words in question are “successive, ac incontinenti”, which must be rendered as “then (following the order of the pope) because Galileo did not agree”. The document makes sense if translated in this manner.