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Keywords:

  • disordered domain;
  • disorder in pfam;
  • intrinsically disordered;
  • intrinsically unstructured;
  • pfam domain;
  • unstructured domain

Abstract

Protein–protein interactions are thought to be mediated by domains, which are autonomous folding units of proteins. Recently, a second type of interaction has been suggested, mediated by short segments termed linear motifs, which are related to recognition elements of intrinsically disordered regions. Here, we propose a third kind of protein–protein recognition mechanism, mediated by disordered regions longer than 20–30 residues. Bioinformatics predictions and well-characterized examples, such as the kinase-inhibitory domain of Cdk inhibitors and the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-homology domain 2 of actin-binding proteins, show that these disordered regions conform to the definition of domains rather than motifs, i.e., they represent functional, evolutionary, and structural units. Their functions are distinct from those of short motifs and ordered domains, and establish a third kind of interaction principle. With these points, we argue that these long disordered regions should be recognized as a distinct class of biologically functional protein domains.