Epigenetic cancer therapy: Proof of concept and remaining challenges

Authors

  • Cora Mund,

    1. Global Drug Discovery, Research and Development, Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany
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  • Frank Lyko

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Epigenetics, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    • Correspondence to: Frank Lyko, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
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Abstract

Over the past few years several drugs that target epigenetic modifications have shown clinical benefits, thus seemingly validating epigenetic cancer therapy. More recently, however, it has become clear that these drugs are either characterized by low specificity or that their target enzymes have low substrate specificity. As such, clinical proof-of-concept for epigenetic cancer therapies remains to be established. Human cancers are characterized by widespread changes in their genomic DNA methylation and histone modification patterns. Epigenetic cancer therapy aims to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. In this review, we provide an overview about the known functional roles of DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases in cancer development. The available data identify several examples that warrant further consideration as drug targets. Future research should be directed toward targeted enzyme inhibition and toward exploring interactions between epigenetic pathways to maximize cancer specificity.

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