• dicot;
  • embryogenesis;
  • monocot;
  • seed development;
  • transcription factor


Seed development in this paper has been classified into the three landmark stages of cell division, organ initiation and maturation, based on morphological changes, and the available literature. The entire process proceeds at the behest of an interplay of various specific and general transcription factors (TFs). Monocots and dicots utilize overlapping, as well as distinct, TF networks during the process of seed development. The known TFs in rice and Arabidopsis have been chronologically categorized into the three stages. The main regulators of seed development contain B3 or HAP3 domains. These interact with bZIP and AP2 TFs. Other TFs that play an indispensable role during the process contain homeobox-, NAC-, MYB-, or ARF-domains. This paper is a comprehensive analysis of the TFs essential for seed development and their interactions. An understanding of this interplay will not only help unravel an integrated developmental process, but will also pave the way for biotechnological applications.