Prospects & Overviews
Shadow enhancers: Frequently asked questions about distributed cis-regulatory information and enhancer redundancy
Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011
Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 34, Issue 2, pages 135–141, February 2012
How to Cite
Barolo, S. (2012), Shadow enhancers: Frequently asked questions about distributed cis-regulatory information and enhancer redundancy. Bioessays, 34: 135–141. doi: 10.1002/bies.201100121
- Issue published online: 11 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011
- cis-regulatory elements;
- transcriptional regulation
This paper, in the form of a frequently asked questions page (FAQ), addresses outstanding questions about “shadow enhancers”, quasi-redundant cis-regulatory elements, and their proposed roles in transcriptional control. Questions include: What exactly are shadow enhancers? How many genes have shadow/redundant/distributed enhancers? How redundant are these elements? What is the function of distributed enhancers? How modular are enhancers? Is it useful to study a single enhancer in isolation? In addition, a revised definition of “shadow enhancers” is proposed, and possible mechanisms of shadow enhancer function and evolution are discussed.