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Keywords:

  • circadian;
  • latitude;
  • migration;
  • obesity
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The variable photoperiods of Northern latitudes challenge the entrainment capacity of the circadian pacemaker, which evolved under constant photoperiods in Equatorial regions. Entrainment to the erratic photoperiods facilitated by artificial light presents an additional challenge. Metabolic dysfunction and obesity are potential consequences of such desynchronization of circadian and environmental rhythms.