Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century
Article first published online: 12 OCT 2007
Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 29, Issue 11, pages 1147–1158, November 2007
How to Cite
Morris, B. J. (2007), Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century. Bioessays, 29: 1147–1158. doi: 10.1002/bies.20654
- Issue published online: 12 OCT 2007
- Article first published online: 12 OCT 2007
Circumcision of males represents a surgical “vaccine“ against a wide variety of infections, adverse medical conditions and potentially fatal diseases over their lifetime, and also protects their sexual partners. In experienced hands, this common, inexpensive procedure is very safe, can be pain-free and can be performed at any age. The benefits vastly outweigh risks. The enormous public health benefits include protection from urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted HIV, HPV, syphilis and chancroid, penile and prostate cancer, phimosis, thrush, and inflammatory dermatoses. In women circumcision of the male partner provides substantial protection from cervical cancer and chlamydia. Circumcision has socio-sexual benefits and reduces sexual problems with age. It has no adverse effect on penile sensitivity, function, or sensation during sexual arousal. Most women prefer the circumcised penis for appearance, hygiene and sex. Given the convincing epidemiological evidence and biological support, routine circumcision should be highly recommended by all health professionals. BioEssays 29:1147–1158, 2007. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.