BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 10

October 2012

Volume 34, Issue 10

Pages 821–913

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
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      BioEssays 10/2012

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290047

      Genome rocks. The genome of each species consists of a defined number of chromosomes. However, this number can change in cells, leading to chromosome copy number variations (aneuploidy) with large phenotypic consequence. Interestingly, aneuploidy is associated with both adaptation and pathogenesis. On pages 893–900 of this issue Guangbo Chen et al. review the widespread existence of aneuploidy in different species under different conditions. To reconcile the seemingly contradictory role of aneuploidy in both adaptation and pathogenesis, the review highlights the difference between organismal versus cellular evolution in multi-cellular species. The proposed mathematical model suggests that aneuploidy drives rapid evolution through phenotypic leap in cell populations with restricted size. The production of chromosome number variation can be further increased by stress- or mutation-induced chromosomal instability, fueling rapid cellular adaptation. The comparative genomic hybridization data of aneuploid cells is presented as music spectrum.

      Cover by Xiang Yuan and Guangbo Chen.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
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  3. Contents and highlights of this issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
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      BioEssays 10/2012 (pages 824–825)

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290046

  4. Insights & Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. Idea to watch

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    3. Ex laboratorio

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      A critical assessment of the h-index (pages 830–832)

      Natascha Gaster and Michael Gaster

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The h-index is used to assess an individual researcher's publication record. An analysis of the publication record of 248 professors in the health sciences revealed that the h-index is closely associated to a scientist's number of publications. The nature of the h-index is therefore rather quantitative than qualitative.

    4. Hypotheses

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      An epithelial tissue in Dictyostelium challenges the traditional origin of metazoan multicellularity (pages 833–840)

      Daniel J. Dickinson, W. James Nelson and William I. Weis

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201100187

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Epithelial tissue, a hallmark of animal body plans, was recently discovered in the non-metazoan Dictyostelium. These findings challenge conventional views of the origins of multicellularity, but can be explained if metazoans and Dictyostelium shared a common ancestor that spent a portion of its life cycle as a multicellular organism.

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      Is adult stem cell aging driven by conflicting modes of chromatin remodeling? (pages 841–848)

      Jens Przybilla, Joerg Galle and Thimo Rohlf

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201100190

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We hypothesize that age-related changes of chromatin structure originate in the limited cellular capability to inherit epigenetic information. Spontaneous loss of histone modification, e.g., during replication gives rise to changes in DNA methylation and accordingly in gene expression, manifesting a conflict between stem cell plasticity and long term gene silencing.

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      Hedgehog signalling as an antagonist of ageing and its associated diseases (pages 849–856)

      Monireh Dashti, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch and Farhad Rezaee

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hedgehog is a morphogenic signal during embryogenesis and adult life with many vital biological functions such as neuromodulators and anti-adipogenesis. Downregulation of Hedgehog signalling is associated with ageing-related diseases like Alzheimer/Parkinson and T2D diseases and upregulation of this signalling reduces risk of these diseases. Thus, Hedgehog signalling is antagonist of ageing.

    7. Think again

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      Do miRNAs have a deep evolutionary history? (pages 857–866)

      James E. Tarver, Philip C. J. Donoghue and Kevin J. Peterson

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Only five eukaryotic clades (plants, green algae, brown algae, demosponges, and eumetazoans) are currently known to possess microRNAs, with each clade evolving their own unique repertoire. The only conserved element in microRNA biogenesis is the multi-domain protein DICER and provides another example of molecular exaptation.

    8. Commentary

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      Recombination between RNA viruses and plasmids might have played a central role in the origin and evolution of small DNA viruses (pages 867–870)

      Mart Krupovic

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200083

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The finding that viruses with RNA and DNA genomes can recombine to produce chimeric entities provides valuable insights into the origin and evolution of viruses. It also substantiates the hypothesis that certain groups of DNA viruses could have emerged from plasmids via acquisition of capsid protein-coding genes from RNA viruses.

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  5. Prospects & Overviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. Review essays

      Improved vaccines through targeted manipulation of the body's immunological risk-assessment? (pages 876–884)

      Leif E. Sander

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microbial threat levels physiologically correlate with the robustness of resulting immune responses (blue line). Threat evaluation could be harnessed to skew this correlation (red line) to improve vaccine efficiency. equation image low threat stimulus (e.g., dead microbes), equation image high threat stimulus (e.g., viable microbes), and equation image modified low threat stimulus (e.g., killed microbes + vita-PAMPs).

    2. Problems & Paradigms

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      Stress-induced mutation via DNA breaks in Escherichia coli: A molecular mechanism with implications for evolution and medicine (pages 885–892)

      Susan M. Rosenberg, Chandan Shee, Ryan L. Frisch and P. J. Hastings

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stress-induced mutation molecular mechanism in Escherichia coli: repair of DNA double-strand breaks is switched to a mutagenic mode using DinB and other error-prone DNA polymerases during stress, by the RpoS stress response. This increases genetic diversity, and the ability to evolve, when cells are maladapted to their environment: when stressed.

    3. Whole chromosome aneuploidy: Big mutations drive adaptation by phenotypic leap (pages 893–900)

      Guangbo Chen, Boris Rubinstein and Rong Li

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Big mutations, such as whole chromosome aneuploidy, can drive rapid cellular adaptation by phenotypic leap. The figure illustrates that under severe stress, the survival probability of genetic variants increases drastically along with the amount of phenotypic variations generated (represented by width ratio).

    4. Methods, Models & Techniques

      Epigenetics meets mathematics: Towards a quantitative understanding of chromatin biology (pages 901–913)

      Philipp A. Steffen, João P. Fonseca and Leonie Ringrose

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201200076

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Current models for chromatin mediated gene regulation often describe molecules as binding, modifying or recruiting other molecules, but with little reference to the quantitative differences between them. In this review we explore how quantitative and mathematical approaches can give insights into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.

  6. BiotecVisions

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
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      BiotecVisions 2012, September (pages A1-A8)

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290048

  7. Next Issue

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents and highlights of this issue
    5. Insights & Perspectives
    6. Prospects & Overviews
    7. BiotecVisions
    8. Next Issue
    1. You have free access to this content
      BioEssays – Next Issue

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/bies.201290049

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